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South Sea Pearl Indonesia

South Sea Pearl Indonesia

Indonesia ndiro guru rezvitsuwa pasi rose rine hove dzakapfuma uye zvigadzirwa zvemugungwa. Chimwe chezvigadzirwa zvakadaro iSouth Sea pearl, zvine nharo imwe yemhando dzakanakisisa dzeparera. Haisi kungopihwa zviwanikwa zvakapfuma, Indonesia zvakare ine hunyanzvi hwehunyanzvi hwekuita hunyanzvi hwepamusoro.

Nechinyorwa ichi, tiri kukuunzira chimwe chakakosha chigadzirwa cheIndonesia, iyo South Sea pearl. Senyika iri pamharadzano dzemakungwa maviri nemakondinendi maviri, tsika dzechiIndonesian dzinoratidza musanganiswa wakasiyana wakaumbwa nekudyidzana kurefu pakati petsika dzechivanhu nemaitiro akawanda ekunze. Nhaka yakapfuma yeIndonesia inopa pasi rose zvakasiyana-siyana zvemaparera ezvishongo zvekugadzira.

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Imwe yevatambi vepamusoro pasirese, Indonesia yanga ichigadzira uye kutumira maparera kumusika wepasi rose, seAustralia, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea neThailand. Zvinoenderana nenhamba, kukosha kwekunze kweparera kwakawedzera 19.69% paavhareji pagore munguva ye2008-2012. Mumwedzi mishanu yekutanga ya2013, mutengo wekutengesa kunze wakasvika US$9.30 mamiriyoni.

Pearl yemhando yepamusoro yave ichionekwa sechimwe chezvinhu zvakakosha zvekunaka kwemazana emakore akawanda, pamwe nemamwe matombo anokosha. Nehunyanzvi, parera rinogadzirwa mukati memhenyu yakavharwa molusc, mukati menyama yakapfava kana mantle.

Pearl inogadzirwa necalcium carbonate muminiti yecrystalline fomu, senge goko rekudzikama, muzvikamu zvakadzika. Parera rakakodzera raizove rakatenderera uye rakatsetseka asi kune mamwe akawanda maumbirwo emapeya, anonzi baroque maparera.

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Nekuti maparera anogadzirwa zvakanyanya ne calcium carbonate, anogona kunyungudika muvhiniga. Calcium carbonate inotapukirwa nechero isina kusimba asidhi mhinduro nekuti makristasi e calcium carbonate anopindirana neacetic acid muvhiniga kuumba calcium acetate uye carbon dioxide.

Maparera echisikigo anongoerekana aitika musango ndiwo anonyanya kukosha asi panguva imwe chete ari mashoma. Maparera ari kuwanikwa pamusika anowanzo kurima kana kurimwa kubva paarl oyster uye mvura yakachena mussels.

Kutevedzera maparera anogadzirwawo zvakanyanya sezvishongo zvisingadhuri kunyangwe mhando yacho yakaderera zvakanyanya pane yakasikwa. Maparera ekugadzira ane iridescence isina kunaka uye anosiyaniswa zviri nyore kubva kune zvakasikwa.

Hunhu hwemaparera, echisikigo uye akarimwa, hunoenderana nekuve kwaakaita nyoro uye kupenya sezvakaita mukati medeko rinoagadzira. Nepo maparera achinyanya kurimwa nekukohwewa kugadzira zvishongo, akasonerwa pazvipfeko zveumbozha pamwe nekupwanyika uye kushandiswa muzvizoro, mishonga nemusanganiswa wependi.

Pearl Types

Maparera anogona kupatsanurwa muzvikamu zvitatu zvichienderana nekuumbwa kwayo: zvakasikwa, tsika uye kutevedzera. Pamberi pekuderera kwemaparera echisikigo, anenge makore zana apfuura, maparera ose akawanikwa aiva maparera chaiwo.

Nhasi maparera echisikigo haawanzo kuwanikwa, uye anowanzo kutengeswa mumaokisheni muNew York, London nedzimwe nzvimbo dzepasirese pamitengo yekudyara. Maparera echisikigo, netsanangudzo, marudzi ese emaparera akaumbwa netsaona, pasina kupindira kwevanhu.

Idzo dzakavapo netsaona, dzine mavambo anoshatirisa akadai sechipembenene chinoputika. Mukana wekuitika kwechisikigo ichi mudiki zvakanyanya sezvo zvinoenderana nekusagashirwa kwekupinda kwezvinhu zvekunze izvo oyster haikwanise kudzinga kubva mumuviri wayo.

Parera rakagadzirwa rinopinda maitiro akafanana. Kana iri pearl yechisikigo, oyster iri kushanda yega, nepo maparera akagadzirwa ari zvigadzirwa zvekupindira kwevanhu. Kuti oyster ibudise parera, nyanzvi inodyara chinosvoda mukati meoyster nemaune. Zvinhu zvinoiswa mukuvhiya ichidimbu chegoko chinonzi Amai vePearl.

Iyi nzira yakagadzirwa neBritish biologist William Saville-Kent muAustralia uye yakaunzwa kuJapan naTokichi Nishikawa naTatsuhei Mise. Nishikawa akapiwa patent muna 1916, uye akaroora mwanasikana waMikimoto Kokichi.

Mikimoto akakwanisa kushandisa tekinoroji yaNishikawa. Mushure mokunge patent yakapiwa muna 1916, teknolojia yakakurumidza kushandiswa kune Akoya pearl oyster muJapan muna 1916. Munin’ina waMise ndiye akatanga kubudisa chibage chekutengesa maparera muAkoya oyster.

Mitsubishi’s Baron Iwasaki akabva ashandisa tekinoroji kuSouth Sea pearl oyster muna 1917 kuPhilippines, uye gare gare muButon, uye Palau. Mitsubishi ndiyo yaive yekutanga kugadzira pearl yeSouth Sea ine tsika – kunyangwe yaive isati yave kusvika 1928 apo chibage chidiki chekutanga chekutengesa maparera chakabudirira kugadzirwa.

Kutevedzera maparera inyaya yakasiyana zvachose. Kazhinji, girazi regirazi rinonyikwa mumushonga wakagadzirwa kubva kumakero ehove. Iyi jasi itete uye inogona kupedzisira yasakara. Munhu anogona kazhinji kutaura kutevedzera nekuruma pairi. Maparera emanyepo anotsvedza nepakati pemazino ako, ukuwo zvidimbu zvenacre pamaparera chaiwo zvinonzwa kutsvinda. Chitsuwa cheMallorca muSpain chinozivikanwa nekutevedzera maparera indasitiri.

Kune masere ekutanga maumbirwo emaparera: kutenderera, semi-kutenderera, bhatani, kudonha, pear, oval, baroque, uye yakatenderedzwa.

Yakakwana maparera akatenderera ndiyo isingawanzo uye yakakosha chimiro.

  • Semi-rounds inoshandiswawo mumitsipa kana zvidimbu umo chimiro cheparera chinogona kuvharwa kuti chitaridzike separera rakatenderera rakakwana.
  • Bhatani maparera akafanana nepearl rakatenderedzwa zvishoma uye rinogonawo kugadzira necklace, asi rinowanzoshandiswa mune imwe chete pendants kana mhete apo hafu yekuseri yeparera yakavharwa, zvichiita kuti iite separera guru, rakatenderera.
    -Kudonhedza uye maparera akaitwa pear dzimwe nguva anonzi maparera emisodzi uye anowanzo onekwa mumhete, pendants, kana sepakati pearl muhuro.
  • Baroque maparera ane kukwezva kwakasiyana; ivo kazhinji havana kunyanya kurongeka nemhando dzakasiyana uye dzinonakidza. Vanowanzoonekwawo mumaketani.
  • Maparera akakomberedzwa anoratidzirwa ne concentric ridges, kana zvindori, zvakatenderedza muviri weparera.

Pasi peHarmonised System (HS), maparera akakamurwa kuita matatu madiki-mapoka: 7101100000 echisikigo maparera, 7101210000 eparera akasimwa, asina kushandwa uye 7101220000 emaparera akasimwa, akashanda.


Iyo Inopenya yeINDONESIA’s Pearl

Kwemazana emakore, pearl chaiyo yeSouth Sea yave ichionekwa semubairo wemaparera ese. Kuwanikwa kweiyo yakanyanya kuwanda yeSouth Sea pearl mibhedha kunyanya Indonesia nenzvimbo dzakatenderedza, senge, North Australia mukutanga 1800’s yakaguma mune yakanyanya kufarirwa nguva yemaparera muEurope panguva yeVictorian.

Rudzi urwu rweparera rinosiyaniswa kubva kune mamwe ese ese nekunaka kwayo gobvu remusikirwo. Nacre yepanyama iyi inoburitsa kupenya kusingaenzaniswi, iyo isingangobudisi “kupenya” semamwe maparera, asi chitarisiko chakapfava chakapfava, chisingabatike chinoshandura hunhu pasi pemamiriro echiedza akasiyana. Runako rwenacre iyi iyo yakaita kuti pearl yeSouth Sea ifadze kune nyanzvi dzezvishongo zvine rusarura mumazana emakore apfuura.

Zvagara zvakagadzirwa neimwe yakakura pearlbearing oyster, iyo Pinctada maxima, inozivikanwawo seSilver-Lipped kana Gold-Lipped oyster. Iyi sirivheri kana yegoridhe-lipped mollusc inogona kukura kusvika pakukura kwendiro yekudya kwemanheru asi inotarisisa zvakanyanya kumamiriro ekunze.

Uku kunzwa kunowedzera kumutengo uye kushomeka kweSouth Sea maparera. Zvakadai, Pinctada maxima inogadzira maparera ehukuru hwakakura kubva pa9 millimeters kusvika pa20 millimeters neavhareji saizi inosvika gumi nemaviri millimita. Zvinonzi nehupamhi hwenacre, South Sea pearl zvakare ine mukurumbira kune akasiyana akasiyana uye anodiwa maumbirwo anowanikwa.

Pamusoro pezvakanaka izvi, pearl yeSouth Sea inewo mavara akasiyana-siyana kubva pakirimu kusvika kune yero kusvika kune yakadzika goridhe uye kubva kuchena kuburikidza nesirivheri. Maparera anogonawo kuratidza “overtone” inoyevedza yeruvara rwakasiyana sepingi, bhuruu kana girini.

Mazuva ano, sezvazvakaita nemamwe maparera echisikigo, pearl chaiyo yeSouth Sea yakapotsa yanyangarika kubva pamisika yenyika. Ruzhinji rweSouth Sea maparera aripo nhasi anorimwa pamapurazi eparera muSouth Sea.

Maparera eSouth Sea yeIndonesia

Semugadziri anotungamira, Indonesia, munhu anogona kuongorora runako rwavo maererano nekupenya, ruvara, saizi, chimiro uye pamusoro pemhando. Maparera ane ruvara rwakakura rweImperial Goridhe anogadzirwa chete nemaoyster anorimwa mumvura yeIndonesia. Panyaya yekupenya, South Sea maparera, ese echisikigo uye ane tsika, ane chimiro chakasiyana.

Nekuda kwekupenya kwavo kwakasiyana-siyana, vanoratidza kupenya kwemukati kwakapfava kunooneka kwakasiyana nekupenya kwepamusoro kwemamwe maparera. Iyo dzimwe nguva inotsanangurwa sekuenzanisa kupenya kwekenduru-mwenje neiyo yechiedza chefluorescent.

Dzimwe nguva, maparera emhando yakanaka kwazvo acharatidza chiitiko chinozivikanwa sekunge orient. Uku ndiko kusanganiswa kweinopenya inopenya ine zvinyoro zvinoratidzira zveruvara. Mavara anopenya zvakanyanya eSouth Sea maparera machena kana machena ane mavara akasiyana-siyana.

Overtones inogona kunge iri chero ruvara rwemuraraungu, uye inotorwa kubva kune echisikigo mavara e nacre yeSouth Sea pearl oyster. Kana yakasanganiswa nekupenya kwakanyanya, vanogadzira mhedzisiro inozivikanwa se “kumabvazuva”. Mavara anowanikwa zvakanyanya anosanganisira, Silver, Pink White, White Rose, Golden White, Gold Cream, Champagne uye Imperial Gold.

Imperial goridhe ruvara ndiro risingawaniki kune ese. Urwu ruvara runoshamisa runogadzirwa chete nemaoyster anorimwa mumvura yeIndonesia. Maparera eSouth Sea ane tsika akakwirira muhukuru, uye kazhinji ari pakati pe10mm ne15 millimeters.

Kana hukuru hukuru hunowanikwa, maparera asingawanzo kupfuura 16 millimeters uye dzimwe nguva anopfuura 20 millimeters anokosheswa zvakanyanya nevanoziva. Kana runako rwuri muziso remuoni, ipapo South Sea Pearls inopa zviuru zvemikana yerunako rwekuona, sezvo pasina maparera maviri akafanana chaizvo. Nekuda kwekukora kwenacre yavo, South Sea maparera ane tsika anowanikwa mumhando inonakidza yezvimiro.

Pearl nacre yakanaka matrix yecalcium carbonate crystals uye yakakosha zvinhu zvinogadzirwa neoyster. Iyi matrix yakaradzikwa mumataira akaumbwa akanyatsogadzirwa, akaturikidzana pamusoro pedhiri. Ukobvu hweparera hunotaridzirwa nehuwandu hwezvikamu, uye hupamhi hwega yega yega.

Kuonekwa kwenacre kuchagadziriswa kana makristasi e-calcium ari “flat” kana “prismatic”, nekukwana kweiyo matairi akaiswa, uye nekunaka uye nhamba yezvikamu zvematairi. The effect
pakunaka kweparera kunoenderana nechiyero chekuonekwa kweizvi zvakakwana. Hunhu hwepamusoro hweparera uhwu hunotsanangurwa seganda reparera.

Kunyangwe chimiro chisingakanganisi kunaka kweparera, kudiwa kwemamwe maumbirwo kune chekuita nekukosha. Kuti zvive nyore, maparera eSouth Sea akagadzirwa akaiswa muzvikamu zvinomwe zvechimiro. Mapoka akati wandei akapatsanurwazve muzvikamu zvidiki-diki:

1) Round;
2) SemiRound;
3) Baroque;
4) Semi-Baroque;
5) Drop;
6) Denderedzwa;
7) Bhatani.

Iyo Mambokadzi Runako rweSouth Sea Pearl

Indonesia inogadzira Maparera eSouth Sea anorimwa kubva kuPinctada maxima, rudzi rukuru rweoyster. Senzvimbo yezvitsuwa ine nharaunda yakachena, Indonesia inopa nharaunda yakakwana yePinctada maxima kuburitsa emhando yepamusoro maparera. Indonesia’s Pinctada maxima inogadzira maparera ane anopfuura gumi nemaviri emavara emhando.

Maparera asingasviki uye anokosha zvikuru anogadzirwa ndeaya ane mavara egoridhe nesirivha. Yakasiyana-siyana yakapfava mimvuri, pakati pevamwe, sirivheri, champagne, inopenya chena, pink uye goridhe, ine Imperial Goridhe Pearl seyakanyanya kunaka pamaparera ese.

Iyo Imperial Goridhe Rudzi Pearl inogadzirwa nemaoyster inorimwa mumvura yakachena yeIndonesia ndeyechokwadi iyo Queen of South Sea Pearl. Kunyangwe mvura yeIndonesia iri imba yeSouth Sea pearl, mutemo unodiwa kudzora kutengeserana kwemukati uye kunze kwenyika kuitira kuve nechokwadi chemhando uye mutengo weparera. Hurumende nemamwe mapato anoenderana nazvo
kuvaka hukama hwakasimba kugadzirisa dambudziko.

Panyaya yemaparera ekuChina, ayo akagadzirwa kubva kuhove dzemvura yakachena uye anofungidzirwa kuti ane giredhi yakaderera, hurumende yakatora matanho ekudzivirira sekuburitsa Mutemo weFishery and Maritime Affairs Ministerial Regulations No. 8/2003 paPearl Quality Control. Chiyero chinodiwa semaparera eChinese ane mhando yakaderera asi anotaridzika zvakanyanya kufanana nemaparera eIndonesia. inogona kutyisidzira nzvimbo dzekugadzira maparera eIndonesia muBali neLombok.

Kutengeswa kunze kwenyika kweIndonesia maparera kwakaratidza kuwedzera kukuru munguva ye2008-2012 neavhareji yekukura kwegore ye19.69%. Muna 2012, zvizhinji zvekutengesa kunze kwenyika zvakange zvichitungamirirwa nemaparera echisikigo pa51%. Maparera akagadzirwa, asina kushandirwa, akateverwa nechekure yechipiri aine 31.82% uye akasimwa maparera, akashanda, pa16.97%.

Kutengeswa kunze kwenyika maparera eIndonesia muna 2008 kwakangokosha paUS$14.29 miriyoni isati yawedzera kusvika paUS$22.33 miriyoni muna 2009.

Mufananidzo 1. Indonesian Export of Pearls (2008-2012)

yakawedzera kusvika paUS$31.43 miriyoni uye US$31.79 miriyoni muna 2010 na2011 zvichiteerana. Kutengeswa kunze kwenyika, zvisinei, kwakaderedzwa kusvika US$29.43 miriyoni muna 2012.

Kudzikira kwese kwakaramba kuchienderera mberi mumwedzi mishanu yekutanga ya2013 nekutengeswa kunze kwenyika kweUS$9.30 miriyoni, chibvumirano che24.10% kana zvichienzaniswa neUS$12.34 miriyoni munguva imwe cheteyo muna2012.

Mufananidzo 2. Indonesian Export Destination (2008-2012)

Muna 2012, nzvimbo huru dzekutumira maparera eIndonesia dzaive Hong Kong, Australia, neJapan. Kutengeswa kunze kwenyika kuHong Kong kwaive US$13.90 miriyoni kana 47.24% yeIndonesian pearl. Japan ndiyo yaive yechipiri pakukura kwaitengeswa kunze kwenyika neUS$9.30 miriyoni (31.60%) uye ichiteverwa neAustralia neUS$5.99 miriyoni (20.36%) neSouth Korea neUS$105,000 (0.36%) neThailand neUS$36,000 (0.12%).

Mumwedzi mishanu yekutanga ye2013, Hong Kong yaive zvakare nzvimbo yepamusoro neUS $ 4.11 miriyoni inokosha yekutengesa pearl, kana 44.27%. Australia yakatsiva Japan pachinhanho chechipiri neUS$2.51 miriyoni (27.04%) kozoti Japan yakatora US$2.36 miriyoni (25.47%) ichiteverwa neThailand neUS$274 000 (2.94%) kozoti South Korea neUS$25,000 (0,27%).

Kunyange zvazvo Hong Kong yakaratidza kukura kunoshamisa kwegore negore kwe124.33% munguva ye2008-2012, kukura kwakabatanidzwa ne39.59% mumwedzi mishanu yekutanga ye2013 kana ichienzaniswa nenguva imwechete muna 2012. %

Mufananidzo 3. Indonesian Export by Province (2008-2012)
======F3========

Mazhinji eIndonesia maparera anotengeswa kunze kwenyika anobva kuBali, Jakarta, South Sulawesi, neWest Nusa Tenggara mapurovhinzi ane tsika dzinotangira paUS$1,000 kusvika US$22 miriyoni.

Mufananidzo 4. Kutengeswa kunze kweMaparera, nat kana cult, etc Kunyika neNyika (2012)
=====F4=====

Kutengeswa kunze kwenyika kwepasi rose muna 2012 kwakasvika US$1.47 bhiriyoni iyo yaive yakaderera ne6.47% pane yakatengeswa kunze kwenyika muna 2011 yeUS$1.57 bhiriyoni. Munguva ye2008-2012, avhareji yegore negore yakatambura kubva kune chibvumirano che 1.72%. Muna 2008, kutengesa kunze kwenyika maparera kwakasvika US $ 1.75 bhiriyoni kungodzikira mumakore anotevera. Muna 2009, kutengesa kunze kwakaderedzwa kusvika kuUS $ 1.39 bhiriyoni isati yatora kusvika US$1.42 bhiriyoni uye US$157 bhiriyoni muna 2010 na2011 zvakateerana.

Hong Kong ndiyo yaive pamusoro pekutengesa kunze kwenyika muna 2012 iine US$408.36 miriyoni yemugove wemusika we27.73%. China yaive yechipiri nekutengesa kunze kweUS$283.97 miriyoni zvichiita 19.28% yemugove wemusika ichiteverwa neJapan paUS$210.50 miriyoni (14.29%), Australia nekutengesa kunze kwenyika kweUS$173.54 miriyoni (11.785) neFrench Polynesia iyo yakatengesa US$76.18 miriyoni ( 5.17%) kupedza iyo yepamusoro 5.

Pachitanhatu paive neUnited States nekutengesa kunze kwenyika kweUS$65.60 miriyoni pamusika we4.46% ichiteverwa neSwitzerland neUS$54.78 miriyoni (3.72%) neUnited Kingdom iyo yakatengesa US$33.04 miriyoni (2.24%). Ichiendesa kunze US$29.43 miriyoni anokosha emaparera, Indonesia yakatora 9th ine musika mugove we2% ukuwo Philippines yakapedzisa Top 10 runyorwa nekutengesa kunze kweUS$23.46 miriyoni (1.59%) muna 2012.

Mufananidzo 5. Govera uye Kukura kweWorld Export (%)
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Munguva ya2008-2012, Indonesia ine hukuru hwekukura kwe19.69% ichiteverwa nePhilippine pa15.62%. China neUnited States ndidzo chete zvimwe zvakatengeswa kunze kwenyika zvakaona kukura kwakanaka pa9% ne10.56% zvakateerana pakati peNyika gumi dzepamusoro.

Indonesia, zvisinei, yakatambura ne7.42% contraction gore-pa-gore pakati pa2011 na2012 nePhilippines ine kukura kwakakura-pagore kwe38.90% neAustralia iri iyo yakaipisisa yakaita chibvumirano che31.08%.

Kunze kweAustralia, ndidzo chete nyika dziri muPamusoro gumi vatengesi kunze kwenyika vakanyora kukura mukutengesa kwavo maparera kunze
United States ine kukura kwe22.09%, United Kingdom ine 21.47% uye Switzerland pa20.86%.

Nyika yakatenga kunze US$1.33 bhiriyoni yemaparera muna 2012, kana kuti 11.65% yakaderera pane ya2011 yekutenga kunze kwenyika yeUS$1.50 bhiriyoni. Mukati menguva ya2008-2011, kunze kwenyika kwakatambura avhareji yepakati pegore ye3.5%. Kutengeswa kwenyika kwemaparera kwakasvika pakakwirira muna 2008 neUS $ 1.71 bhiriyoni kusati kwadzikira kusvika kuUS $ 1.30.

Mufananidzo 6. Kupinza Maparera, nat kana cult, etc Kubva kuNyika
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bhiriyoni muna 2009. Kutengeswa kunze kwenyika kwakaratidza maitiro ekudzokazve muna 2010 na2011 neUS$1.40 bhiriyoni neUS$1.50 bhiriyoni zvakateerana zvisati zvadonha kusvika kuUS$1.33 muna2012.

Pakati pevanotengesa kunze kwenyika, Japan yakatungamira runyorwa muna 2012 nekuunza US $ 371.06 miriyoni yemaparera emugove wemusika we27.86% wepasi rose wepasi rose wepasirese weUS $ 1.33 bhiriyoni. Hong Kong yaive yechipiri nekutengwa kweUS$313.28 miriyoni yemugove wemusika we23.52% ichiteverwa neUnited States paUS$221.21 miriyoni (16.61%), Australia paUS$114.79 miriyoni (8.62%) neSwitzerland panzvimbo yechishanu iri kure. kunze kweUS$47.99 (3.60%).

Indonesia yakangounza US$8,000 chete anokosha emaparera muna 2012 akamira pachinzvimbo chechi104.

Munyori: Hendro Jonathan Sahat

Rakadhindwa ne: DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF NATIONAL EXPORT DEVELOPMENT. Ministry of Trade Republic yeIndonesia.

Ditjen PEN/MJL/82/X/2013