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Glossary of Pearl Terms D

Glossary of Pearl Terms D

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dadjin: A 19th-century pearler?s basket used to hold mollusk shells and a knife.

dana: Historical Persian quality factor describing a perfect round natural pearl larger than 7 mm.

diffraction: One of the ways nacre layers interfere with light, possibly causing light to split into its component colors (the spectrum), one or more of which can be displayed as overtone and/or orient.

Dobo pearl: An Indonesian Pinctada maxima pearl grown on the Aru Island of Wokam prior to World War II. It is said that 9 mm cultured akoya pearls were used as nuclei.

dolomite nucleus: See Bironite.

Dom?: Trade name for cultured American blister pearl produced with a nucleus that remains in the blister when the shell is cut around the pearl?s perimeter.

drop: A symmetrical pearl shape that?s round on one end and tapers almost to a point on the other. The shape can be short or long and takes its name from a water drop or teardrop.

dust pearl: Historical term describing a natural pearl smaller than 2 mm. See seed pearl.

dyeing: Artificially coloring pearls using a dye.

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Glossary of Pearl Terms C

Glossary of Pearl Terms C

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cabochon: In gemology, a usually round or oval shaped gemstone with a domed top and flat bottom; hence, a pearl of that shape.

calcareous concretion: Whether nacreous or not, all pearls are calcareous concretions.

calcite: A crystalline form of natural calcium carbonate that, together with aragonite and conchiolin, makes up the structure of nacre.

calcium carbonate: Pearls are composed of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and other elements and substances.

candling: Examining a pearl in front of a focused light source to determine if it shows the layered structure that proves it contains a bead nucleus.

carat: A weight measure sometimes used for natural pearls. It equals 4 grains, 200 milligrams or 0.007054 oz.

Cassis pearl: Yellowish brown pearl produced by gastropods of the genus Cassis.

cave pearls: Stalactite pearls of a brown color, concentric layers and, sometimes, a pearly luster.

Ceylon pearl mollusk: The Pinctada radiata mollusk known for producing natural pearls in the Gulf of Mannar, the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. According to some taxonomists, Pinctada radiata is a synonym for Pinctada imbricata, Pinctada fucata and others.

chau: Historical unit of weight used in the natural pearl trade in India, also called chov.

chaplets: Line extensions of a pearl farm?s long line system that are secured to the shells.

chemical dyes: A method used to alter the natural color of a cultured pearl.

cherry: A reddish overtone often found on pearls produced by Pinctada margaritifera.

chloride vapor deposition: A superficial pearl coating/coloring agent experimented with in the 1960s.

choker necklace: A strand of pearls that lies above the collar bone, 14 to 16 inches in length (35 to 41 cm).

chov: See chau.

CIBJO: (Conf?d?ration Internationale de la Bijouterie, Joaillerie et Orf?vrerie), also known as the World Jewellery Confederation, is an international confederation of jewelry, gemstone, horology, and silverware trade organizations. CIBJO publishes The Pearl Book: Natural, Cultured & Imitation Pearls?Terminology & Classification.

circled pearl: Pearl with raised concentric rings around its surface, thought to be produced by the developing pearl rotating during growth.

clam pearl: Non-nacreous pearl found in clams.

coating: A layer of artificial or natural substance applied to pearls to enhance luster, surface quality or to produce other optical effects.

coconut pearl: So-called ?pearl? said to be found in coconuts.

coin pearl: Bead-and-tissue-cultured pearl shaped like a coin.

collar: A strand of pearls that measures 10 to 13 inches (25 to 33 cm).

composite cultured blister pearl: See mabe.

composite pearl: Two separate pearls conjoined to give the appearance of a single pearl.

concentric structure: The layering of calcium carbonate crystals that is characteristic of natural pearls, tissue-cultured pearls, bead-cultured pearls and the nacre layer of bead-and-tissue-cultured pearls.

conch pearl: Non-nacreous pearl produced by the conch shell.

conchioline: The organic substance that acts like glue, binding calcite and aragonite crystals together.

condari: Historical Chinese unit of weight used to evaluate pearls; associated with the weight of a grain of wheat or rice.

cool hues: Colors from reddish purple to greenish blue to yellowish green from the GIA color reference chart.

coque de perle: Imitation pearl made from the Nautilus shell (also see Osmenda pearl).

corn flake shape: Second generation pearl that the Chinese mistakenly call ?keshi.? They are shaped like breakfast cereal corn flakes.

Cortez pearls: Trade name forthe pearl cultured inPteria sterna in the Gulf of California, which is also called the Sea of Cortez.

CP&J City: China Pearls and Jewellery City. The world?s largest pearl and jewelry trade center; under construction in Shanxiahu, Zhuji, Zhejiang, China. The first phase opened in April 2008.

Cristaria plicata: The cockscomb mussel first used in Japan and China in cultured freshwater pearl production.

cross shape: Tissue-cultured pearl grown in the shape of a cross.

cultured pearl: Pearl produced by the human insertion of a bead, a tissue graft, or a bead and tissue graft in a freshwater mussel or saltwater mollusk.

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Glossary of Pearl Terms B

Glossary of Pearl Terms B
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baby pearl: Also called ?indicator pearl.? South Sea pearl from Indonesia grown for a short period to produce a pearl sac. The nacre is typically very thin and the quality low.

baroque: A pearl shape; irregular and not symmetrical.

Basra pearl: Named after the town of Basra in Iraq. Name given by Indian dealers to freshly harvested natural pearls from this area.

baten: Historical Persian quality factor describing a button pearl.

baythawee: Historical Persian quality factor describing an oval pearl.

bead-and-tissue-cultured pearl: A freshwater or saltwater cultured pearl whose growth is started by implanting a shell bead nucleus and a donor-mollusk mantle-tissue piece in the mantle, gonad, or other body part of a host mollusk.

bead-cultured pearl: A freshwater or saltwater cultured pearl whose growth is started by implanting a shell bead nucleus in an existing pearl sac from which a first-generation cultured pearl was removed.

bell pearl: Historical term used to describe a natural, pear-shaped pearl.
Big Pink Pearl: Listed in Guinness Book of World Records as largest natural abalone pearl from the Haliotis rufescens, weighing 469.13 carats.

Bironite: Trade name for a non-organic nucleus composed of dolomite.

bivalve: A mollusk from the class Bivalvia having a two-part shell attached by a hinge.

Biwa pearl: Pearl grown in Hyriopsis schlegeli freshwater mussel in Lake Biwa, Japan. Term is often incorrectly used to describe freshwater pearls in general.

Biwako pearl: The name first given to a Biwa pearl.

black-lipped mollusk: Pinctada margaritifera and Pinctada margaritifera cumingi mollusk.

black pearl: A pearl of naturally dark colors produced by the Pinctada margaritifera, Pinctada margaritifera cumingi, Pinctada mazatlanica and Pteria sterna mollusks.

bleaching: A common whitening treatment applied to most cultured akoya and freshwater pearls, and occasionally applied to cultured South Sea and Tahitian pearls.

blinking: An optical phenomenon created by light reflecting from mother-of-pearl remnants on the shell bead within a cultured pearl. Blinking often proves a cultured pearl is bead-nucleated and often indicates a thin nacre coating.

blister pearl: Pearl attached to the shell of the host mollusk. These can occur naturally when a pearl sac bonds with the upper mantle or by human intervention when a hemispherical nucleus is attached to the inner shell by a grafting technician.

blue pearl: Name given to a cultured mabe pearl grown in the Haliotis iris abalone shell.

bodycolor: The aspect of a pearl?s color that is caused by pigment as opposed to light interference.

Bourgignon pearls: Imitation pearls popular in 18th and 19th century France.

brailing: Technique of using a row of hooks to drag the bottoms of southeastern US rivers to collect mussels.

Brewster?s theory: Developed in 1814 by Sir David Brewster, it attributed the iridescent colors of mother-of-pearl to light diffraction from the surface structure.

Broome pearl: Australian cultured South Sea pearl of the 1960s, exhibited a silver hue.

bu: Historical Japanese linear measure still used today to designate the diameter of a bead nucleus. One bu equals 3.03 mm.

Buddha pearl: The first cultured blister pearl produced by the Chinese by implanting a Buddha-shaped nucleus between the mantle and shell of freshwater mussels in the late 1200s.

buffing: A post-harvest method of removing organic residue from pearls and polishing their surface.

buoys: Used to float lines from which mollusks are hung in net panels or other holding devices.

Burmese pearl: Historic term given to a natural Pinctada maxima pearl with a golden or yellow hue.

burnt gold: Also called burnt orange. The most desirable color of gold South Sea pearls; they exhibit a deep gold to dark orange or reddish bodycolor.

button pearl: A dome shape pearl with a flat side. Button shapes are classified as high or low depending on the height of the dome.

byssus: Structure composed of thread-like tissue that bivalve mollusks use to anchor themselves to a solid external surface.

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Glossary of Pearl Terms A

Glossary of Pearl Terms A

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abalone blister pearl: Nacreous natural half-pearl formed on the inside of an abalone shell.

abalone cultured blister pearl: Nacreous pearl cultured by attaching a half-round nucleus to the inside of the abalone shell. At harvest, the shell is cut around the blister, leaving the nucleus and shell intact.

abalone mabe pearl: Nacreous cultured blister pearl that is separated from the shell at harvest. Its half-round nucleus is removed, the cavity is filled with epoxy resin and backed with a mother-of-pearl disk.

abalone pearl: Nacreous natural whole pearl formed in the body of an abalone.

abas: Unit of weight historically used in Persia to valuate natural pearls. One abas is equivalent to 0.91 carat.

Abernethy Pearl: Discovered by Bill Abernethy in Scotland in 1967. This natural freshwater pearl weighs 44 grains.

abyadh: Historical Persian quality factor for the best color natural pearl (white color).

acid test: Method of testing the authenticity of a natural or cultured pearl with hydrochloric acid. This destructive test is often used by pawnbrokers.

adductor: The muscle that opens and closes a bivalve mollusk?s two shells; it is sometimes cooked, eaten and considered a delicacy.

Ago Bay, Japan: The location of the Mikimoto?s first pearl farm and still the home of many akoya farms today.

akoya: The Japanese name (akoya-gai) of the Pinctada fucata martensi mollusk used in cultured akoya pearl production.

akoya keshi: Small pearl found in the akoya mollusk where it forms as a byproduct of the pearl culturing process.

akoya pearls: Natural or cultured pearl from an akoya mollusk.

alabaster pearl: Imitation pearl made from an alabaster bead that is coated with iridescent lacquer.

ama: The historical female pearl divers of Japan. There were two types: the kachido (those who worked alone) and the funado (those who worked with a partner from a boat, typically the husband).

Amami Gold Pearl: Pearl first produced by the Tasaki Shinju Company in the Pinctada maxima mollusk on the Ryukyu Islands of Japan; known for its better-than-average luster.

American pearls: Natural pearls found and cultured pearls grown in the waters in and around the Americas.

aniline dyes: Synthetic organic (contain carbon) agent used to artificially produce dark colors in cultured pearls.

Antilles pearls: Imitation pearls made from the spindle of trochus or turbo shells.

aragonite: Calcium carbonate crystals stacked in a brick-like pattern; a component of nacre and mother-of-pearl.

atlas pearl: Imitation pearl made from atlas spar.

atoll: A ring of coral that nearly or wholly encircles a lagoon. Atolls are considered the best place to farm cultured pearls in the Pinctada margaritifera mollusk.

Atrina pearls: Dark pearl produced by Atrina vexillum in the Gulf of California.

awabi pearls: Japanese abalone pearl found in the gastropod Auris marina.

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Pinctada martensii (Akoya Pearl Oyster)

Pinctada martensii (Akoya Pearl Oyster)

P. martensii (Dunker 1857)

Environment And Habitat

P. martensii originates from Japan and the Ryukyu islands. It is discovered locally along the South-eastern Pacific shore of Japan and stretches out north toward the southern bank of Korea. The region incorporates the warm Kuroshio Stream. In view of unpredictable water temperatures, P. martensii adjust well to seasonal changes in water temperature and flow. Mohar , an assortment of P . martensii , have additionally been found in the Persian Gulf, along the bank of the colossal bight that bends from the promontory of Oman to Qatar. The pearls are found in profundities of 8-20 comprehends (48-120 feet). They are for the most part discovered connected to coral or rock. Mohar shellfish deliver a portion of the finest natural Oriental pearls.

P. martensii In Pearls

The Japanese have utilized P. martensii in pearl culture for over a century under the equivalent word ?akoya-gai.? Albeit a few pearl-shellfish animal types are available on the bank of Japan, P. martensii is the stand out of significance. Because of the closeness of its living space to Korea, the species is likely utilized by Japanese organizations as a part of Korean pearl farms too. This species nearly takes after the pearl clam of Ceylon (originally it was marked a sub-types of P. vulgaris). P. martensii are recognized by their coloration: cocoa and white outside with an inside lip that is yellow and chestnut. Conversely, the Ceylon shellfish shell has a pink internal lip.
The Pinctada martensii tumbled from pearl prominance during the Japanese pearl shellfish cease to exist of the mid 1990’s. To recover the business Japanese imported Pinctada chemnitzii akoya shell from China. The mollusk is currently a hybridization of Pinctada martensii and Pinctada chimnitzii. Today, both Japan and China utilize this shell as the essential akoya pearl maker.

In the first place Use Of The Pinctada Martensii In Perliculture And The Origins Of Discovery

Large scale manufacturing of P. martensii started in 1890 in Japan. The pearl culturing Industry was halfway situated in Ago Bay. The proprietor of the 1,000 sections of land of sea base was the famous Kokichi Mikimoto, who started with around a million clams and delivered a harvest of 30,000-50,000 pearls yearly. Right now, (1907), Mikimoto was reaping just half pearls, that were infrequently ever circular. These pearls were cultured in the shell of the shellfish and were insufficient in luster, delicate, and just appealing from their upper surface. They couldn’t be utilized as a part of necklaces.

Dr. T. Nishikawa of the Tokyo Imperial University initially found the innovation to create circular ?akoya? pearls. In a letter he wrote in 1907, he expressed: ?It is an awesome delight for me to let you know that I am concentrating on pearl development and pearl-shellfish culture work this mid year (1907). Luckily, I have found the reason for Japanese pearl development, i.e. the motivation behind why and how the pearl is created in the tissue of the shellfish. I made a down to earth use of this hypothesis with extraordinary prospects for delivering the natural and genuine pearls voluntarily.? (Kunz, George Frederick. The Book of the Pearl. New York: 1908. pp 292-3). The data referenced by Nishikawa in this letter depicts the innovation that changed the exploration of pearl culturing from shell nucleation to tissue nucleation. In the wake of getting his patent in 1916, round Japanese akoya entered the pearl market interestingly. It is normal misguided judgment that Mikimoto imagined this procedure. Mikimoto obtained Nishikawa’s research through marriage to Nishikawa’s little girl. Utilizing Nishikawa’s procedure, Mikimoto got to be famous for concocting round ?akoya? pearls from the P. martensii clam.

It is likewise vital to note that lately it has been revealed that the “revelation” made by Nishikawa was in all likelihood gathered from a British exile living in Australia named William Sawville-Kent who passed on soon after discovering the mystery of culturing circular pearls.

Basic Synonyms Margaritifera martensii

P. fucata

P. pica

P. japonica

Prevalent Names Japanese Lingah

Akoya gai

White Butterfly

Essential Source Japan

Other geological locations Southern shore of Korea

Persian Gulf: promontory of Oman to Qatar

P. martensii in pearls Known as the Akoya pearl>

Origin of the “Mikimoto akoya”