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Pearl Wholesale ABDURRACHIM.com from pearl farm. phone/whatsapp +6287865026222

Pearl Wholesale ABDURRACHIM.com from pearl farm. phone/whatsapp +6287865026222

Pearl Wholesale ABDURRACHIM.com from pearl farm. phone/whatsapp +6287865026222 Supported By : Pearl Wholesale https://www.abdurrachim.com Pearl & Jewelry Shop http://missjoaquim.com mutiara lombok pearl Lombok Island Tour http://marlionllc.com paket wisata lombok & tour lombok

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Pearl Wholesale ABDURRACHIM.com – Phone/Whatsapp : +62-878-6502-6222

Pearl Wholesale ABDURRACHIM.com – Phone/Whatsapp : +62-878-6502-6222

Uncompromising Quality, Dedicated Service

ABDURRACHIM.com Pearl Wholesale is a leading pearl trading company with over 8 years of experience based in Lombok Island, Indonesia.

We built our reputation as the most reliable source for pearls in the world with an exceptional level of service.

We specialize in cultured pearls. We offer a vast selection of high quality pearls.

Our experience and industry relationships allow us to competitively source a unique selection of pearls of uncompromising quality.

We have built our reputation customer by customer for over 2 generations.

We dedicate ourselves to your needs, study them and deliver the pearls most suitable to you.

We provide the quickest delivery times for orders, and welcome small volume orders too.

Expertise, Knowledge : By working with us, you gain access to all the knowledge relationships we have built in the pearl industry, famous for quality and accuracy.

Dedicated, Reliable : You can count on us. We are responsive, reliable and dedicated to your needs. We are always be available to you, learning your preference to perfection, delivering consistency.

Growing Together : Big or small, we adapt to you. We work with the largest pearl companies as well as small businesses. No matter the size of your order, we will dedicate our resources to it.

Your Gateway to Pearls : We offer quick lead times and no surprises. Whether you need high volume, or just a few unique items, we are your “boots on the ground”.

Our Expertise is in cultured pearls. We hand pick each pearl we have in our inventory keeping the quality high and consistent.

We hold a vast selection of Golden South Sea Pearl, Tahitian pearls, Akoya Pearl.

We have unique, “one of a kind” pieces as well as items for the mass market.

ABDURRACHIM.com Pearl Wholesale. Contact Us via Phone / Whatsapp : +62-878-6502-6222

Uncompromising Quality, Dedicated Service

ABDURRACHIM.com Pearl Wholesale is a leading pearl trading company with over 8 years of experience based in Lombok Island, Indonesia.

We built our reputation as the most reliable source for pearls in the world with an exceptional level of service.

We specialize in cultured pearls. We offer a vast selection of high quality pearls.

Our experience and industry relationships allow us to competitively source a unique selection of pearls of uncompromising quality.

We have built our reputation customer by customer for over 2 generations.

We dedicate ourselves to your needs, study them and deliver the pearls most suitable to you.

We provide the quickest delivery times for orders, and welcome small volume orders too.

Expertise, Knowledge : By working with us, you gain access to all the knowledge relationships we have built in the Japanese pearl industry, famous for quality and accuracy.

Dedicated, Reliable : You can count on us. We are responsive, reliable and dedicated to your needs. We are always be available to you, learning your preference to perfection, delivering consistency.

Growing Together : Big or small, we adapt to you. We work with the largest pearl companies as well as small businesses. No matter the size of your order, we will dedicate our resources to it.

Your Gateway to Pearls : We offer quick lead times and no surprises. Whether you need high volume, or just a few unique items, we are your “boots on the ground”.

Our Expertise is in cultured pearls. We hand pick each pearl we have in our inventory keeping the quality high and consistent.

We hold a vast selection of Golden South Sea Pearl, Tahitian pearls, Akoya Pearl.

We have unique, “one of a kind” pieces as well as items for the mass market.

ABDURRACHIM.com Pearl Wholesale. Contact Us via Phone / Whatsapp : +62-878-6502-6222

ABDURRACHIM.com Pearl Wholesale – Phone/Whatsapp : +62-878-6502-6222

Uncompromising Quality, Dedicated Service

ABDURRACHIM.com Pearl Wholesale is a leading pearl trading company with over 8 years of experience based in Lombok Island, Indonesia.

We built our reputation as the most reliable source for pearls in the world with an exceptional level of service.

We specialize in cultured pearls. We offer a vast selection of high quality pearls.

Our experience and industry relationships allow us to competitively source a unique selection of pearls of uncompromising quality.

We have built our reputation customer by customer for over 2 generations.

We dedicate ourselves to your needs, study them and deliver the pearls most suitable to you.

We provide the quickest delivery times for orders, and welcome small volume orders too.

Expertise, Knowledge : By working with us, you gain access to all the knowledge relationships we have built in the Japanese pearl industry, famous for quality and accuracy.

Dedicated, Reliable : You can count on us. We are responsive, reliable and dedicated to your needs. We are always be available to you, learning your preference to perfection, delivering consistency.

Growing Together : Big or small, we adapt to you. We work with the largest pearl companies as well as small businesses. No matter the size of your order, we will dedicate our resources to it.

Your Gateway to Pearls : We offer quick lead times and no surprises. Whether you need high volume, or just a few unique items, we are your “boots on the ground”.

Our Expertise is in cultured pearls. We hand pick each pearl we have in our inventory keeping the quality high and consistent.

We hold a vast selection of Golden South Sea Pearl, Tahitian pearls, Akoya Pearl.

We have unique, “one of a kind” pieces as well as items for the mass market.

ABDURRACHIM.com Pearl Wholesale. Contact Us via Phone / Whatsapp : +62-878-6502-6222

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Grosir Mutiara ABDURACHIM.com – Phone/Whatsapp : +62-878-6502-6222

Grosir Mutiara ABDURACHIM.com – Phone/Whatsapp : +62-878-6502-6222

Kualitas Tanpa Kompromi, Layanan Khusus.

ABDURRACHIM.com Pearl Wholesale adalah perusahaan perdagangan mutiara terkemuka dengan pengalaman lebih dari 8 tahun yang berbasis di Pulau Lombok, Indonesia.

Kami membangun reputasi kami sebagai sumber mutiara paling andal di dunia dengan tingkat layanan yang luar biasa.

Kami mengkhususkan diri dalam mutiara budidaya. Kami menawarkan banyak pilihan mutiara berkualitas tinggi.

Pengalaman dan hubungan industri kami memungkinkan kami untuk secara kompetitif mendapatkan pilihan mutiara yang unik dengan kualitas tanpa kompromi.

Kami telah membangun reputasi pelanggan demi pelanggan selama lebih dari 2 generasi.

Kami mendedikasikan diri untuk kebutuhan Anda, mempelajarinya dan memberikan mutiara yang paling cocok untuk Anda.

Kami menyediakan waktu pengiriman tercepat untuk pesanan, dan menerima pesanan dalam jumlah kecil juga.

Keahlian, Pengetahuan : Dengan bekerja bersama kami, Anda mendapatkan akses ke semua hubungan pengetahuan yang telah kami bangun di industri mutiara Jepang, yang terkenal dengan kualitas dan akurasinya.

Berdedikasi, Terpercaya : Anda dapat mengandalkan kami. Kami responsif, andal, dan berdedikasi untuk kebutuhan Anda. Kami selalu tersedia untuk Anda, mempelajari preferensi Anda untuk kesempurnaan, memberikan konsistensi.

Tumbuh Bersama : Besar atau kecil, kami beradaptasi dengan Anda. Kami bekerja dengan perusahaan mutiara terbesar serta usaha kecil. Tidak peduli ukuran pesanan Anda, kami akan mendedikasikan sumber daya kami untuk itu.

Gerbang Anda Menuju Mutiara : Kami menawarkan waktu tunggu yang cepat dan tidak ada kejutan. Apakah Anda membutuhkan volume tinggi, atau hanya beberapa item unik, kami adalah “sepatu bot di tanah” Anda.

Keahlian kami adalah mutiara budidaya. Kami memilih sendiri setiap mutiara yang kami miliki dalam inventaris kami dengan menjaga kualitas tetap tinggi dan konsisten.

Kami memiliki banyak pilihan Mutiara Laut Selatan Emas, Mutiara Tahiti, Mutiara Akoya.

Kami memiliki barang-barang unik, “satu-satunya” serta barang-barang untuk pasar massal.

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Agarwood

沉香木 Chén xiāng mù Agarwood Gaharu Oud Kambodi العود – Whatsapp: +62-878-6502-6222 – WeChat ID: exportercompany

Incense for religious ceremonies, perfume for the Arabic world, medicinal wine in Korea and ornamental functions in China. As a healthy tree the Aquilaria is worth next to nothing, but wounded its defence mechanisms produce agarwood and the tree becomes a valuable commodity. Historically, agarwood has been used for medicinal, aromatic and religious purposes.

Agarwood is the heartwood produced by a number of Aquilaria species in Southeast Asia, with Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Laos and Papua New Guinea as the main producing countries and Singapore being the main trade centre. The resin-impregnated heartwood is fragrant and, as a result, highly valuable.

This resin is produced as a result of pathological or wounding processes. It is also thought that resin production is a response to fungal infection.

Interestingly however, not all Aquilaria trees produce resin and it is extremely difficult (or even impossible) to judge from the outside of a tree whether or not it is infected. Cutting the tree is the only way to find out whether the tree contains the resin.

Agarwood, aloeswood, eaglewood and gaharu are all names for the resinous, fragrant and highly valuable heartwood produced primarily by Aquilaria species, in the family Thymelaeaceae.

Trade in agarwood has been recorded for over 2000 years, with primary markets in the Middle East and East Asia being supplied from sources ranging from the north-east of the Indian sub- continent through continental South-east Asia and the Indo-Malesian archipelago (Hou, 1960).

The Egyptians believed have used agarwood incense as part of their death rituals more than 3,000 years.

Traditional Usages

Agarwood‟s use as a medicinal product has been recorded in the Sahih Muslim, which dates back to approximately medicinal text the Susruta Samhita. Its use as a perfume has been recorded in the Old Testament. These and other uses continue today traditional East Asian medical practices.

Both agarwood oil and incense are used for their fragrant properties, notably in the Middle E monies by Buddhists, Hindus and Muslims, while a revival of the Koh doh‟ incense ceremony in Japan has rekindled interest in agarwood aromatic ingredient in Chu-yeh Chingand Vo Ka Py wine.

Agarwood may also be carved into sculptures, beads and boxes, these sometime roximately the eighth century, and in the Ayurvedic today.

Agarwood is used in Ayurvedic, Tibetan and Middle Eastern.

This 23.5 Million USD – Very rare and very vintage King Kambodi

Wild Agarwood: In the past most agarwood has been harvested from the wild. Because it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, most of the Aquilaria trees are chopped down indiscriminately.

High quality agarwood can fetch as much as US$1000 per kilo. Thro frontier of agarwood exploitation across Asia as traders, continuously search for untouched forests containing Aquilaria trees (Barden and as a result, the news about agarwood harvesting spread like „gold fever‟.

Large sums of money and all kinds of luxury items with the traditional producers of agarwood. Usually this fever‟ was temporary. Once the largest trees were cut, new harvesting expedition of gold, the collecting of small quantities of agarwood became a less rewarding activity.

Agarwood’s Market

By the early 1990s, the aquilaria tree had been harvested to near extinction in Southeast Asia and was classified as an endangered species and placed on the Convention for International Trade in Endangered Species (CITIES) list making it illegal to harvest or trade the commodity without a CITIES permit.

So a drive began to replace the trees in the natural forest driven by private sector investment in commercial sustainable plantations.

At present only 35% of the global demand is being met by the agarwood producing countries (Forest Research Institute of Malaysia).

Oudh is considered a luxury but a necessary fragrance in the Middle East and is burned as a mark of respect and hospitality and is a traditional gesture of welcoming and honouring guests.

In Japan agarwood and oud oil is donated to their spiritual leader, and it is also widely used in China and India for healers. In Taiwan it is used as an aromatic ingredient for local wines.

In the West, Oudh has been used by many perfumery houses over the past 25 years and has recently enjoyed a surge in popularity as Western brands seek to expand into emerging Asian markets.

To name but a few big name brands to have used oud over the years include, Calvin Klein Obsession (1987), Nina Ricci (1995), Yves Saint Laurent (2002), Tom Ford Oudh Wood (2007), Juicy Couture (2008), Dior Fahrenheit Absolute (2009).

Agarwood can only be traded if it carries a CITIES permit confirming that it is from a “sustainable source”. However unfortunately, much agarwood is still traded across borders illegally (smuggled).

This illegal trade actually drives prices higher since smugglers expect high margins in return for the risks they take. There are around 80 countries that import agarwood annually but the biggest importers of the commodity are the UAE, Japan, Saudi Arabia and Taiwan with the largest exporters being Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand.

The value of agarwood exported from Singapore alone has been estimated to exceed $1.2 bans per annum (United Nations FAO). To see whether a tree contains agarwood or not. In the history there has been an ever-moving are dental. 2000). Trees were fetching high prices were offered to the forest dwelling communities, became less successful and just as in the case.

We are the co-owner of 300 acre.

We are the manufacturer and exporter of Agarwood. Also known as Aloeswood, Eaglewood, Oudh, Gaharu, Jinkoh(Japan), Chen Xiang(China), Chim Hyuang (Korea), Pau Dáguila (Portugese), Calambac/Bois Dáigle(French) and Adlerholz (German) and also produce Agarwood related products from Thailand in the Southeast Asia region. Thailand produce one of the best Agarwood product in the world.

Our Agarwood products are 100% “Pure & Genuine” from our own plantation. It is Aquilaria Sub Integra species. This species produced the most resin content among other. Our main products are Agarwood Chips (Oudh Chips), Agarwood Oil (Oudh Oil), Agarwood Chunk, Agarwood Powder, Agarwood Incense Stick, Agarwood Incense Cone, Agarwood stuff, Bakhoor, Agarwood Tea, Agarwood Toiletries (Soap, Shampoo etc).

We are confident enough to say that our Agarwood are grown and cultivated by Agriculturist, not from the forest, and we do have a good Agarwood cultivation technique to produce more resin from the trees.

Agarwood, also called aloeswood, incense chips

Each and every agarwood tree will be registered with CITIES. Our agarwood trees quality has been certified and proofed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives Government and Industrial institute of Thailand. Our existing client are from the Middle East and China. We also have expertise in Agarwood industry more than a decade and we are able to sell and supply Agarwood products for high volume quantity to international market.

We produce grades from the lowest to the highest as per the market demands. We are being considered as one of the top producer for the super grades in the Arab market. Based on the reports during the recent “World

Agarwood Meeting” in Vietnam, an Aquilaria Sub-Integra species trade has got the highest commercial value in the market.

General Objectives: To support the stability and upgrade the standard of living of the natives of Sarawak and to protect and preserving its flora and fauna. Through the establishment of the strategic reproduction process frameworks as a means for the judicious utilization of natural resources and re empowerment of the people, and its community.

USD 25,000 200 years old tree

Environmental Facts: The environmental issue is global issue for long time ago. Recently 24 countries had meeting to find orientation to solve effectively the environmental issue to protect human and creatures in this world to be existed and developed well.

The process of building our country with the key is that: to develop economy and improve environment, has an importance and mutual interaction, as “Lip with Teeth, as Fish and Water” that cannot be separated.

PLANTATIONS & CULTIVATIONS

Deforestation is a perennial problem besetting every government and population. The continuing trend of deforestation calls for vigilant such as judicious governance and strategic approaches to forest preservation and regeneration.

Sarawak in East Malaysia was included in the protection and preservation of its rainforest which is home to diverse species of flora and fauna and which sustains the bulwark of wildlife habitation.

One of the ideal habitation for a substantial number of large forest tree species is Gaharu or commonly known as Agarwood, bearing the scientific name of Aquilaria Sub-Integra.

Natural Agarwood has been decreasing, then it becomes exhausted under the cruel exploiting hand of human. Because of lacking of experience, they cut down without mercy all Aquilaria trees that they saw.

Formerly perennial Aquilaria trees were very immense and verdant, contributed very important role to the protection of environment, ecological conservation in our country, now they cry for help in hopelessness, then they are step-by- step losing and disappear in the forest gradually.

According to CITES (2003), the Agarwood tree produces a substance known as resin mould, a coat to protect itself from parasite infections. This resin mould has a natural, sweet-smelling fragrances and can be used as a primary ingredient for the manufacturing expensive perfumes.

A full grown Agarwood tree produces about 10 kilograms of the resin mould. The product potential of the Agarwood tree can substantially provide for the needs of economies. However, utilizing the Agarwood tree economic purpose or industrial venture needs strategic framework that adheres to forest sustainability and preservation.

Agglomeration of Agarwood: We think about the mechanism of Unification of “Yin and Yang” in the excellent combination included: Quintessence of Land (source of nutrient sap to breed the tree), Sense of Purpose and Uprightness

of Sky (phenomenon of photosynthesis), mixed with actions of person (excite to create Agarwood by the mechanical and chemical method: drill a hole to bring catalyst to create resin), with the extractives of Animal (insect, microorganism, micro fungus, is biological action), mixed with water for long days “Tempered as Resin”.

Innoculation Process

Inoculation is a method that was developed to induce the production of Agarwood from young trees. The trees are inoculated in a specific manner enable then to produce Resin.

Resin will be produced by the trees as that is their natural defence mechanism towards the inoculation process. This method can ensure the consistent production of Agarwood from the trees planted.

The main principle of the process was the drilling of holes in the tree trunk and keeping the wound open by putting a small piece of plastic pipe in the hole. A chemical treatment was added to the wound to encourage the trees defence mechanism which stimulates the production of the resin.

After years of experimenting with the numbers of holes, the age of the tree, the amount of chemicals and other variables, the first trees were recently harvest and the production of incense made from the cultivated agarwood has begun.

The success of the experiment implies that it will not be long before the method spreads to other areas where Aquilaria trees are being grown.

This artificial inoculation process involves drilling holes on the Agarwood tree, filling them with fungal pathogen and sealing them off with wax.

Produced only by “sick” trees infected by fungi, this highly sought after fragrant resin (tras) has a cohort of uses, from aromatherapy to spa baths, perfume, message oil, soap, hair shampoo, hair conditioner, lip gloss, insect repellent, mosquito coils etc. After two to six years, upon maturing, the trees will be injected with fungi pathogens to trigger Agarwood production and this can be harvested after five months to a year.

After 6 months of inoculation catalyst, each Aquilaria Sub-Integra tree with enough above condition begin having agglomeration of Agarwood but leave it for 2 years then exploit it, in average we can have Agarwood of:

  • 2kg type V,
  • 2kg type VI,
  • Some cases we can have Agarwood of type IV, III, if leave it for many years.

Thus it shows the transformation of Agarwood in low grade to Agarwood in high grade, can have the product in the highest grade (Agarwood of type I) with the time is long enough (6-10 years).

Aquilaria Sub-Integra trees can transplant Resin, it effect can reach up to 95% as expected.

Perfumer’s Guilty Pleasure

Oudh Essential Oil, is without a doubt the most refined olfactory merchandise available anywhere. The distillation of oudh oil has become an art form in its own right. These days, a new fad has taken root among designer perfume lines; Dior, Tom Ford, Yves Saint Laurent, Estee Lauder, who have started to incorporate Agarwood scents into their mainstream products

Oil Distillations

The Oil is extracted from the Agarwood through distillation. This delicate process determines both the amount and quality of oil produced.

With the exception of large solid pieces of Agarwood which are traded as individual pieces, most of the wood is ground into very small pieces or powder, which are immersed in water and left to ferment over time.

The wood is chopped up into small pieces for distillation, and the dust produced from polishing and finishing the incense grade chips is also collected.

For the hydro distillation method of extracting Agarwood oil, this wood is then soaked in barrels of water for some time to make it easier for the oil to come out when heated.

After the soaking process is over, the wood is now placed in large stills and cooked at precise temperatures and pressures. Some distillers, in order to save money, might cook the wood at very high temperatures and pressures.

This is in the hope of sucking out as much of the Agarwood oil in the shortest period of time possible. This is done to cut down labour, fuel, water, and electricity costs.

But the effect of this is clearly discernable in the yielded oil. Pungent, burnt and harsh are some words to describe this type of oil. Then the material is transferred to distillation kettles and steamed.

After heating, the condensed water and oil are captured in a container where the oil floats on top of the water. The water is remove and the oil is tapped.

While the traditional hydro-distillation method is commonly used in India, Thailand and Cambodia, steam-distillation is most common in Indonesia, but is also used in Thailand and elsewhere.

There are also other methods of extracting oud oil, like super critical CO2 extraction, but we have dealt with the two most common methods. After the oil has been distilled, it is filtered, sunned, and aged for a while. The more the oil is aged, the better it will smell.

Agarwood Oil Price Comparison

The price of high quality oil can be as much as US$50,000 to US$80,000 per litre. This process can be repeated once or twice depending on the quality of the water and the costs of the distillation process. The powder which remains after distillation can be used for low grade incense making.

It is estimated that for the production of one litre of Oudh oil 100 to 150 kilos of Agarwood is necessary.

8-Fold Strategic Framework

  1. Establish Gaharu production area as the means for sustainable industrial utilization of Gaharu Tree.
  2. Promote community collaboration and generate employment.
  3. Regenerate the species by creating seed nurseries.
  4. Conduct scheduled timber logging as replacement of new trees & systematically use land areas for planting.
  5. Expand the reforestation areas to re-acquire forest conversation areas.
  6. Promote sustainable environmental programs in support of the advocacy against deforestation & illegal logging.
  7. Create village level industries as a means of promoting small scale household based harvesting of resin mould.
  8. Established investment and create market opportunities by collaborating with the natives of Sarawak. # “One Village, Three Products” program that focuses on the production of Oil for Perfumes, Leaves for medicine, Herbs and Tea, and The Agarwood itself for Aroma Therapeutic Healing.

Agarwood End – Products

In the Middle East, the tradition of Oudh Perfume is a multi-billion-dollar industry. Oudh is the most luxurious perfume base derived from the Agarwood tree found in Far East Asia.

It takes nearly 300 years to form in the trunk of a tree. Our ability to continuously adapt to trends in the market, ensures that we keep our promise in delivering the very best.

Oudh essential oils used daily by perfume lovers, Aroma lovers and went burn it produces a very relaxing smell that lingers to your home. Being used also in the Ayurvedic medicines, in all ceremonial celebration in the Middle East, the Royal Families Religious events and its compulsory daily by the Saudi males or females. “Fermented Agarwood Majnoon Arabia” produce by us is very popular among the Arab Royalties as its not only produce good smell but also distress a person in its own way.

Agarwood Tea is a must buy in the China and Thailand market. It’s refreshing taste helps to clear sore throat, clear your lungs system and cleans your kidneys. Allah did not brought Agarwood the first plant on earth without any reasons. Our fore father and mother Nabi Adam and Hawa cure all sickness and pain using Oudh/Agarwood. It is believed that all parts of Agarwood plant is useful to us. Oudh Tea ( activation tea) is a very special flavor that stimulate the brain cell cortex, the visceral can run of benign.

Agarwood leaf contains a lot of anti-aging, anti-cancer drug ingredients and it helps to improve one look.

Our Agarwood End-Products:

  1. Agarwood Chips ,
  2. Agarwood Oil,
  3. Agarwood Chunk,
  4. Agarwood Powder,
  5. Agarwood Incense Stick,
  6. Agarwood Incense Cone,
  7. Agarwood Bakhoor,
  8. Agarwood Tea,
  9. Agarwood Toiletries (Soap, Shampoo etc).

Agarwood Leaves

Benefits of Drinking Agarwood Tea; Strengthen the heart, Reduce blood Sugar, Reduce Blood Pressure, Improve Sleep, Beauty, Eliminate Constipation, Degreasing, Good Aphrodisiac and Eliminate Asthma.

Agarwood Grinded & Fermentation

Kambodi insence USD 9,000 per kilo

Toiletries made of Agarwood Base products

沉香木 Chén xiāng mù Agarwood Gaharu Oud Kambodi العود

Whatsapp: +62-878-6502-6222

WeChat ID: exportercompany

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I-South Sea Pearl Indonesia

I-Indonesia South Sea Pearl

I-Indonesia iyiqoqo leziqhingi elikhulu kunawo wonke emhlabeni elinezindawo zokudoba ezinothile nemikhiqizo yasolwandle. Omunye wemikhiqizo enjalo iparele laseNingizimu Sea, ngokungangabazeki enye yezinhlobo ezinhle kakhulu zeparele. I-Indonesia ayigcini nje ngokunikwa izinsiza zemvelo ezinothile, futhi inenqwaba yezingcweti ezinamakhono obuciko obuphezulu.

Ngalesi sihloko, sikulethela omunye umkhiqizo okhethekile wase-Indonesia, i-South Sea pearl. Njengezwe elisempambanweni yomgwaqo wezilwandlekazi ezimbili namazwekazi amabili, isiko lase-Indonesia libonisa ingxube eyingqayizivele elolongwa ukusebenzisana okude phakathi kwamasiko endabuko kanye nemithelela eminingi yangaphandle. Ifa lamasiko elicebile lase-Indonesia linikeza umhlaba ubuciko obuhlukahlukene bobucwebe beparele.

Abdurrachim.com Pearl Wholesale Whatsapp : +62-878-6502-6222

Omunye wabadlali abahamba phambili emhlabeni, i-Indonesia ibiklama futhi ithumela amaparele emakethe yamazwe ngamazwe, njenge-Australia, i-Hong Kong, i-Japan, i-South Korea ne-Thailand. Ngokwezibalo, inani lokuthekelisa leparele likhule ngo-19.69% ngokwesilinganiso ngonyaka esikhathini sika-2008-2012. Ezinyangeni ezinhlanu zokuqala zika-2013, inani lokuthekelisa lafinyelela ku-US$9.30
izigidi.

Iparele lezinga eliphakeme liye lathathwa njengenye yezinto eziyigugu zobuhle amakhulu eminyaka, uma liqhathaniswa namanye amatshe ayigugu. Ngobuchwepheshe, iparele likhiqizwa ngaphakathi kwe-molusc egobolondo ephilayo, ngaphakathi kwezicubu ezithambile noma ingubo.

Iparele lenziwe nge-calcium carbonate ngendlela yecrystalline emincane, njengegobolondo lokuzola, ezingxenyeni eziqondile. Iparele elikahle lingaba yindilinga ngokuphelele futhi libushelelezi kodwa kunezinye izimo eziningi zamapheya, abizwa ngokuthi amaparele e-baroque.

Abdurrachim.com Pearl Wholesale Whatsapp : +62-878-6502-6222

Ngenxa yokuthi amaparele enziwa ngokuyinhloko nge-calcium carbonate, angancibilika kuviniga. I-calcium carbonate isengozini ngisho nesisombululo se-asidi esibuthakathaka ngenxa yokuthi amakristalu e-calcium carbonate asabela ne-acetic acid kuviniga ukuze akhe i-calcium acetate kanye ne-carbon dioxide.

Amaparele emvelo avela ngokuzenzakalelayo endle ayigugu kakhulu kodwa ngesikhathi esifanayo ayivelakancane kakhulu. Amaparele atholakala emakethe njengamanje atshalwa kakhulu noma afuywa kuma-pearl oyster kanye nezimbaza zamanzi ahlanzekile.

Amaparele okulingisa nawo akhiqizwa kabanzi njengobucwebe obungabizi nakuba izinga liphansi kakhulu kunelemvelo. Amaparele okwenziwa ane-iridescence empofu futhi ahlukaniswa kalula nemvelo.

Izinga lamaparele, emvelo nalawo alinywayo, lixhomeke ekubeni aluhlaza futhi anombala okhazimulayo njengoba kunjalo nangaphakathi egobolondweni eliwakhiqizayo. Nakuba amaparele etshalwa kakhulu futhi evunwa ukwenza ubucwebe, aphinde athungelwa ezingutsheni zikanokusho futhi achotshoziwe futhi asetshenziswe ezimonyoni, emithini nasezixubeni zikapende.

Izinhlobo zePearl

Amapharele angahlukaniswa ngezigaba ezintathu ngokusekelwe ekubunjweni kwawo: imvelo, amasiko kanye nokulingisa. Ngaphambi kokuncipha kwamaparele emvelo, cishe eminyakeni eyikhulu edlule, wonke amaparele atholakala ayengamaparele emvelo.

Namuhla amaparele emvelo ayivelakancane kakhulu, futhi avame ukuthengiswa ezindalini eNew York, eLondon nakwezinye izindawo zamazwe ngamazwe ngamanani okutshala izimali. Amaparele emvelo, ngokwencazelo, zonke izinhlobo zamaparele ezakhiwe ngengozi, ngaphandle kokungenelela komuntu.

Ziwumkhiqizo wenhlanhla, ezinesiqalo esicasulayo njenge-parasite egobhozayo. Amathuba alokhu kwenzeka kwemvelo mancane kakhulu njengoba kuncike ekungeneni okungamukeleki kwempahla yangaphandle ukuthi ukhwathu awukwazi ukulikhipha emzimbeni walo.

Iparele elikhulisiwe libhekana nenqubo efanayo. Endabeni yeparele lemvelo, i-oyster isebenza yodwa, kanti amaparele akhulisiwe ayimikhiqizo yokungenelela komuntu. Ukuze enze i-oyster ikhiqize iparele, uchwepheshe ufaka ngamabomu into ecasulayo ngaphakathi ku-oyster. Izinto ezifakwa ngokuhlinzwa ucezu lwegobolondo olubizwa ngokuthi uMama wePearl.

Le nqubo yasungulwa isazi sebhayoloji saseBrithani uWilliam Saville-Kent e-Australia futhi ilethwa eJapane nguTokichi Nishikawa noTatsuhei Mise. U-Nishikawa wanikwa ilungelo lobunikazi ngo-1916, futhi washada nendodakazi kaMikimoto Kokichi.

UMikimoto wakwazi ukusebenzisa ubuchwepheshe bukaNishikawa. Ngemva kokuba ilungelo lobunikazi linikezwe ngo-1916, ubuchwepheshe busetshenziswa ngokushesha kwezohwebo ku-Akoya pearl oyster eJapane ngo-1916. Umfowabo kaMise wayengowokuqala ukukhiqiza isivuno sokuhweba samaparele ku-oyster yase-Akoya.

UBaron Iwasaki kaMitsubishi wasebenzisa ngokushesha ubuchwepheshe eSouth Sea pearl oyster ngo-1917 ePhilippines, futhi kamuva eButon, nasePalau. IMitsubishi yaba ngeyokuqala ukukhiqiza iparele laseNingizimu Sea elikhulisiwe – nakuba kwaze kwafika ngo-1928 lapho isivuno sokuqala esincane sokuhweba samaparele sakhiqizwa ngempumelelo.

Amaparele okulingisa ayindaba ehluke ngokuphelele. Ezimweni eziningi, ubuhlalu bengilazi bucwiliswa kwisixazululo esenziwe ngezikali zezinhlanzi. Lokhu kunamathela kuncane futhi kungase kuguge ekugcineni. Umuntu angakwazi ukubona ukulingisa ngokuluma kukho. Amaparele mbumbulu acwebezela emazinyweni akho, kuyilapho izingqimba ze-nacre kumaparele angempela zizwakala zinsundu. Isiqhingi saseMallorca eSpain saziwa ngomkhakha waso wokulingisa wamaparele.

Kunezimo eziyisishiyagalombili eziyisisekelo zamaparele: nxazonke, isigamu-round, inkinobho, iconsi, ipheya, oval, baroque, futhi indilinga.

Amaparele ayindilinga ngokuphelele ayisimo esiyivelakancane nesibaluleke kakhulu.

  • Ama-semi-round nawo asetshenziselwa imigexo noma izingcezu lapho ukwakheka kweparele kungafihlwa ukuze kubukeke sengathi kuyiparele eliyindilinga ngokuphelele.
  • Amaparele ezinkinobho afana neparele eliyindilinga elicaba kancane futhi angakwazi ukwenza umgexo, kodwa avame ukusetshenziselwa imihlobiso elengayo eyodwa noma amacici lapho ingxenye engemuva yeparele imbozwe khona, okwenza ibukeke njengeparele elikhulu, eliyindilinga.
  • Amaparele amise okweconsi kanye nepheya kwesinye isikhathi abizwa ngokuthi amaparele e-teardrop futhi avame ukubonakala kumacici, imihlobiso elengayo, noma njengeparele eliphakathi kumgexo.
  • Amaparele e-Baroque anokukhanga okuhlukile; zivame ukungajwayelekile kakhulu ezinezimo eziyingqayizivele nezihehayo. Zivame ukubonakala emigexoni.
  • Amaparele ayindilinga abonakala ngamagquma agxile, noma amasongo, azungeze umzimba weparele.

Ngaphansi kwe-Harmonised System (HS), amaparele ahlukaniswe abe izigaba ezintathu ezingaphansi: 7101100000 amaparele emvelo, 7101210000 amaparele akhulisiwe, angasebenzi kanye ne-7101220000 amaparele akhulisiwe, asetshenziwe.


I-Glimmer YePearl yase-INDONESIA

Sekungamakhulu eminyaka, iparele lemvelo laseNingizimu Sea libhekwa njengomklomelo wawo wonke amaparele. Ukutholwa kwemibhede yamaparele aseNingizimu yoLwandle oluningi kakhulu ikakhulukazi e-Indonesia nasezifundeni ezizungezile, njengaseNyakatho ye-Australia ekuqaleni kwawo-1800 kwafinyelela umvuthwandaba enkathini yokuzitika kwamaparele eYurophu phakathi nenkathi yama-Victorian.

Lolu hlobo lweparele luhlukaniswa kuwo wonke amanye ngamaparele alo angokwemvelo aminyene. Le nacre yemvelo ikhiqiza ukucwebezela okungenakuqhathaniswa, okungagcini nje ngokuletha “ukukhanya” njengamanye amaparele, kodwa ukubukeka okuthambile okuyinkimbinkimbi, okungabonakali okushintsha isimo sengqondo ngaphansi kwezimo ezihlukahlukene zokukhanya. Ubuhle bale nacre obuye benza iparele laseNingizimu Sea lithandwa ngabacwebi bobucwebe abanokunambitheka okucwasayo phakathi namakhulu eminyaka.

Ngokwemvelo ikhiqizwa enye yama-oyster amakhulu kunawo wonke ane-pearlbearing, i-Pinctada maxima, eyaziwa nangokuthi i-Silver-Lipped or Gold-Lipped oyster. Le mollusc esiliva noma enezindebe zegolide ingakhula ilingane nepuleti lesidlo sakusihlwa kodwa izwela kakhulu izimo zemvelo.

Lokhu kuzwela kwengeza ezindlekweni nasekuyivelakaleni kwamaparele oLwandle LwaseNingizimu. Kanjalo, i-Pinctada maxima ikhiqiza amaparele anosayizi abakhulu ukusuka kumamilimitha ayi-9 ukuya kumamilimitha angama-20 anosayizi omaphakathi ongamamilimitha ayi-12. Ngenxa yobukhulu be-nacre, i-South Sea pearl nayo idume ngezinhlobonhlobo zezimo ezihlukile nezifiselekayo ezitholakalayo.

Phezu kwalezo zici ezinhle, iparele laseNingizimu Sea libuye libe nemibala eminingi kusukela kukhilimu kuye kophuzi kuye kwegolide elijulile nokusuka komhlophe kuye kwesiliva. Amapharele angase futhi abonise “i-overtone” ethandekayo yombala ohlukile njengobomvana, oluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka noma oluhlaza.

Namuhla, njengoba kwenzeka kwamanye amaparele emvelo, iparele lemvelo laseNingizimu Sea selicishe lanyamalala ezimakethe zomhlaba. Iningi lamaparele oLwandle oluseNingizimu atholakalayo namuhla alinywa emapulazini amaparele eSouth Sea.

I-South Sea Pearls yase-Indonesia

Njengomkhiqizi ohamba phambili, i-Indonesia, umuntu angahlola ubuhle bazo ngokuya ngokukhazimula, umbala, ubukhulu, ukwakheka kanye nekhwalithi ephezulu. Amaparele anombala obabazekayo we-Imperial Gold akhiqizwa kuphela ama-oyster alinywa emanzini ase-Indonesia. Mayelana nokucwebezela, amaparele oLwandle LwaseNingizimu, kokubili emvelo nangokwesiko, abukeka ngendlela ehluke kakhulu.

Ngenxa yokucwebezela kwawo okungokwemvelo okuyingqayizivele, abonisa ukukhanya kwangaphakathi okuthambile okuhluke ngokuphawulekayo ekucwebezeleni okungaphezulu kwamanye amaparele. Kwesinye isikhathi kuchazwa njengokuqhathanisa ukukhanya kwekhandlela nokukhanya kwe-fluorescent.

Ngezinye izikhathi, amaparele ekhwalithi enhle kakhulu azobonisa into eyaziwa ngokuthi i-orient. Lena inhlanganisela yokucwebezela okukhanyayo nokubonisa okucashile kombala. Imibala ekhazimulayo kakhulu yamaparele oLwandle LwaseNingizimu imhlophe noma imhlophe ngama-overtones anemibala ehlukahlukene.

Ama-Overtones angaba cishe noma yimuphi umbala wothingo, futhi asuselwa kumibala yemvelo ye-nacre ye-South Sea pearl oyster. Uma kuhlanganiswe nokucwebezela okunamandla, kudala umphumela owaziwa ngokuthi “i-orient”. Imibala etholakala kakhulu ihlanganisa, Isiliva, I-Pink White, I-White Rose, I-Golden White, I-Gold Cream, I-Champagne kanye ne-Imperial Gold.

Umbala wegolide we-Imperial uyivelakancane kunayo yonke. Lo mbala omangalisayo ukhiqizwa kuphela ama-oyster alinywa emanzini ase-Indonesia. Amaparele akhuliswe eSouth Sea aphakeme ngosayizi, futhi ngokuvamile aphakathi kuka-10mm no-15 millimeters.

Uma kutholakala osayizi abakhulu, amaparele ayivelakancane ngaphezu kwamamilimitha ayi-16 futhi ngezinye izikhathi angaphezu kwamamilimitha angu-20 aziswa kakhulu ochwepheshe. Uma ubuhle busemehlweni obukayo, khona-ke iSouth Sea Pearls inikeza inqwaba yamathuba obuhle okubukwa, njengoba engekho amaparele amabili afana ncamashi. Ngenxa yobukhulu be-nacre yawo, amaparele akhuliswe eSouth Sea atholakala ezinhlobonhlobo ezithokozisayo.

I-Pearl nacre iyi-matrix enhle yamakristalu e-calcium carbonate nezinto ezikhethekile ezikhiqizwa i-oyster. Le matrix ibekwe phansi ngamathayili amancane akhiwe kahle, ungqimba phezu kongqimba. Ubukhulu beparele bunqunywa inani lezendlalelo, kanye nobukhulu bongqimba ngalunye.

Ukubonakala kwe-nacre kuzonqunywa ukuthi amakristalu e-calcium “ayisicaba” noma “i-prismatic”, ngokuphelela okubekwa ngayo amathayili, kanye nobuhle kanye nenani lezingqimba zama-tile. Umphumela
ebuhleni beparele kuncike ezingeni lokubonakala kwalokhu kuphelela. Le mfanelo engaphezulu yeparele ichazwa ngokuthi ibala leparele.

Nakuba umumo ungathinti ikhwalithi yeparele, isidingo somumo othile sinomthelela enanini. Ukuze kube lula, amaparele akhuliswe eSouth Sea ahlelwa abe yizigaba eziyisikhombisa zomumo. Izigaba eziningana ziphinde zihlukaniswe izigaba ezincane eziningi:

1) Umjikelezo;
2) I-SemiRound;
3) Isitayela se-Baroque;
4) I-Semi-Baroque;
5) Ukulahla;
6) Umbuthano;
7) Inkinobho.

Ubuhle Bendlovukazi YaseNingizimu Sea Pearl

I-Indonesia ikhiqiza i-South Sea Pearls etshalwa ku-Pinctada maxima, uhlobo olukhulu lwe-oyster. Njengeqoqo leziqhingi elinendawo ehlanzekile, i-Indonesia ihlinzeka ngendawo ekahle ye-Pinctada maxima ukukhiqiza amaparele ekhwalithi ephezulu. I-Pinctada maxima yase-Indonesia ikhiqiza amaparele anombala ongaphezu kweshumi nambili.

Amaparele angavamile futhi ayigugu kakhulu akhiqizwa yilawo anemibala yegolide nesiliva. Izinhlobonhlobo ezihlukahlukene zemithunzi ethambile, phakathi kokunye, isiliva, i-champagne, emhlophe qwa, ebomvana negolide, ene-Imperial Gold Pearl njengelihle kakhulu kuwo wonke amaparele.

I-Imperial Gold Color Pearl ekhiqizwa ama-oyster alinywa emanzini ahlanzekile ase-Indonesia empeleni iyiNdlovukazi YaseNingizimu Sea Pearl. Nakuba amanzi ase-Indonesian eyikhaya leparele loLwandle LwaseNingizimu, kudingeka isimiso sokulawula ukuhweba kwasekhaya kanye nokuthekelisa kwamanye amazwe ukuze kuqinisekiswe ikhwalithi nenani leparele. Uhulumeni kanye namaqembu ahlobene nawo
wakha ubudlelwano obuqinile ukuxazulula inselele.

Endabeni yamaparele aseShayina, akhuliswa ezimbazeni zamanzi ahlanzekile futhi okusolakala ukuthi anezinga eliphansi, uhulumeni uthathe izinyathelo zokuphepha ezifana nokukhipha iMithethonqubo kaNgqongqoshe Yezokudoba Nezasolwandle No. 8/2003 mayelana Nokulawulwa Kwekhwalithi YePearl. Isilinganiso siyadingeka njengamaparele aseShayina anekhwalithi ephansi kodwa abukeka efana kakhulu namaparele ase-Indonesia. ingaba usongo ezikhungweni zokukhiqiza amaparele ase-Indonesia e-Bali naseLombok.

Ukuthunyelwa kwamanye amazwe kwamaparele ase-Indonesia kubonise ukwanda okukhulu esikhathini sika-2008-2012 ngokukhula okuphakathi konyaka kwe-19.69%. Ngo-2012, ukuthunyelwa okuningi kwamanye amazwe kwakubuswa amaparele emvelo ku-51%.22. Amaparele akhulisiwe, angasebenzanga, alandelwa ngesekhondi elikude ngama-31.82% namaparele akhulisiwe, asetshenziwe, angu-16.97%.

Ukuthunyelwa kwamaparele e-Indonesia ngo-2008 kwabalelwa ku-US$14.29 wezigidi kuphela ngaphambi kokuthi kukhuphuke kakhulu ku-US$22.33 wezigidi ngo-2009.

Umfanekiso 1. I-Indonesian Export of Pearls (2008-2012)

inyuke yaya ku-US$31.43 million kanye ne-US$31.79 million ngo-2010 nango-2011 ngokulandelana. Ukuthunyelwa kwempahla kwamanye amazwe, nokho, kwehliswe kwaba ngu-US$29.43 wezigidi ngo-2012.

Ukwehla kwenhlalakahle kuqhubekile ezinyangeni ezinhlanu zokuqala zika-2013 ngokuthunyelwa kwezigidi ezingu-US$9.30, okuyincipha ngo-24.10% uma kuqhathaniswa namaRandi ayizigidi eziyi-12.34 ngesikhathi esifanayo ngo-2012.

Umfanekiso 2. Indawo Ethunyelwa Ngayo yase-Indonesia (2008-2012)

Ngo-2012, izindawo ezinkulu ezithunyelwa kwamanye amazwe zamaparele ase-Indonesia kwakuyi-Hong Kong, Australia, ne-Japan. Ukuthunyelwa kwe-Hong Kong kwaba ngu-US$13.90 wezigidi noma u-47.24% wesamba esiphelele samaparele ase-Indonesia. I-Japan ibe yindawo yesibili enkulu yokuthunyelwa kwamanye amazwe ngama-US$ 9.30 wezigidi (31.60%) bese ilandelwa yi-Australia ngo-$5.99 million (20.36%) kanye neSouth Korea ngo-$105,000 (0.36%) kanye ne-Thailand ngama-US$36,000 (0.12%).

Ezinyangeni ezinhlanu zokuqala zika-2013, i-Hong Kong iphinde yaba indawo ehamba phambili ngenani lama-US$4.11 wezigidi zokuthunyelwa kweparele, noma ama-44.27%. I-Australia ikhiphe iJapan ngo-$2.51 million (27.04%) kwathi iJapan yalala isithathu ngo-$2.36 million (25.47%) yalandelwa yiThailand ngo-$274,000 (2.94%) kwathi iSouth Korea ngo-$25,000 (0.27%).

Nakuba i-Hong Kong ikhombise ukukhula okujwayelekile ngonyaka okungama-124.33% esikhathini sika-2008-2012, ukukhula kwehle ngo-39.59% ezinyangeni ezinhlanu zokuqala zika-2013 uma kuqhathaniswa nesikhathi esifanayo ngo-2012. %

Umfanekiso 3. Ukuthunyelwa kwe-Indonesia ngeSifundazwe (2008-2012)

Iningi lamaparele ase-Indonesia athunyelwa ngaphandle asuka ezifundazweni zase-Bali, e-Jakarta, e-South Sulawesi, nase-West Nusa Tenggara ngamavelu asuka ku-US$1,000 kuya ku-US$22 million.

Umfanekiso 4. Ukuthunyelwa Kwamaparele, imvelo noma inkolo, njll Ezweni Ngezwe (2012)

Isamba semali yamaparele athunyelwa emhlabeni wonke ngo-2012 ifinyelela ku-US$1.47 billion eyayingaphansi ngo-6.47% kunesibalo sokuthekelisa ngo-2011 se-US$1.57 billion. Esikhathini sika-2008-2012, isilinganiso sonyaka sihlaselwe yi-contraction ye-1.72%. Ngo-2008, ukuthunyelwa kwamaparele emhlabeni wonke kwafinyelela ku-US$1.75 billion kuphela ukwehla eminyakeni elandelayo. Ngo-2009, ukuthunyelwa kwempahla kwamanye amazwe kwehliswa kwaba ku-US$1.39 billion ngaphambi kokuthi kuqoqwe ku-US$1.42 billion kanye ne-US$157 billion ngo-2010 nango-2011 ngokulandelana.

I-Hong Kong ibihamba phambili ekuthumeleni impahla kwamanye amazwe ngo-2012 ngenani lamaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-408.36 ngesabelo semakethe esingama-27.73%. I-China ibe isibili ngokuthekelisa kwezigidi ezingama-US$283.97 okwenza u-19.28% wesabelo semakethe kulandele iJapan ngo-$210.50 wezigidi (14.29%), i-Australia ngokuthekelisa kwezigidi ezingama-US$173.54 (11.785) kanye neFrench Polynesia ethumele ama-US$76.18 wezigidi ( 5.17%) ukusonga iTop 5.

Isendaweni yesi-6 kube i-United States nokuthunyelwa kwezigidi ezingama-US$65.60 ngesabelo semakethe esingu-4.46% kulandele iSwitzerland ngama-US$54.78 million (3.72%) kanye ne-United Kingdom ekhiphe ama-US$33.04 million (2.24%). Ithekelisa amaparele enani eliyizigidi ezingu-US$29.43, i-Indonesia ikleliswe endaweni yesi-9 ngesabelo semakethe esingu-2% kuyilapho i-Philippines iqeda Uhlu Lwe-Top 10 ngokuthekelisa kwezigidi ezingu-US$23.46 (1.59%) ngo-2012.

Umfanekiso 5. Ukwabelana kanye Nokukhula Kokuthengiswa Kwempahla Emazweni (%)

Esikhathini sika-2008-2012, i-Indonesia inenkambiso ephezulu yokukhula ngo-19.69% ilandelwa yiPhilippines ngo-15.62%. I-China kanye ne-United States kube ukuphela kwamanye amazwe angaphandle ahlangabezane nezimo ezinhle zokukhula ngo-9% kanye no-10.56% ngokulandelana phakathi kwamazwe ayi-10 aphezulu.

I-Indonesia, nokho, ihlaselwe ukufinyezwa okungu-7.42% unyaka nonyaka phakathi kuka-2011 no-2012 kanti iPhilippines ibe nokukhula okukhulu konyaka nonyaka ngo-38.90% kanti i-Australia kube yiyona eyenza kabi kakhulu ethole inkontileka engama-31.08%.

Ngaphandle kwe-Australia, okuwukuphela kwamazwe ku-Top 10 abathengisi bangaphandle abarekhode ukukhula ekuthengisweni kwamaparele abo
i-United States ngokukhula ngo-22.09%, i-United Kingdom ngo-21.47% kanye neSwitzerland ngama-20.86%.

Umhlaba wangenisa amapharele enani eliyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama-US$1.33 ngo-2012, noma ngo-11.65% ngaphansi kwesibalo sangowezi-2011 esilinganiselwa ku-US$1.50 billion. Esikhathini sika-2008-2011, ukungeniswa kwamanye amazwe kube nokuncipha okuphakathi konyaka okungu-3.5%. Ukungeniswa kwamaparele emhlabeni kufinyelele phezulu kakhulu ngo-2008 nge-US $ 1.71 billion ngaphambi kokuba kwehle ku-US $ 1.30

Umfanekiso 6. Ukungenisa Kwamaparele, imvelo noma inkolo, njll Okuvela Emhlabeni

bhiliyoni ngo-2009. Ukuthengwa kwempahla kwamanye amazwe kubonise ukuthambekela kokubuyela emuva ngo-2010 kanye no-2011 ngamadola ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingu-1.40 kanye no-US $ 1.50 webhiliyoni ngokulandelana ngaphambi kokuba kwehle ku-US$1.33 ngo-2012.

Phakathi kwabangenisa impahla kwamanye amazwe, i-Japan yahamba phambili ohlwini ngo-2012 ngokungenisa amapharele abiza izigidi ezingu-US$371.06 ngesabelo semakethe esingama-27.86% wesamba sesamba samaparele esithengwayo emhlabeni esingamaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingu-1.33. I-Hong Kong ilale isibili ngokuthengwa kwezigidi ezingu-US$313.28 ngesabelo semakethe esingama-23.52% ilandelwa yi-United States ngamadola ayizigidi ezingu-221.21 (16.61%), i-Australia ngo-$114.79 wezigidi (8.62%) kanye neSwitzerland endaweni yesi-5 ekude ukungenisa kwe-US$47.99 (3.60%).

I-Indonesia yangenisa kuphela amaparele enani lama-US$8,000 ngo-2012 emi endaweni ye-104.

Umbhali: Hendro Jonathan Sahat

Ishicilelwe ngu : UPHIKO-JIKELELE LOKUTHUTHUKISWA KOKUTHUNYELWA KUKAZWELONKE. I-Ministry of Trade Republic of Indonesia.

Ditjen PEN/MJL/82/X/2013