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Pearls farming : oyster disease and other causes of death

Pearls farming : oyster disease and other causes of death

wholesale pearlsWhile very little is known about pearl oyster diseases or their treatment, it is known that stress can bring on disease. Disease organisms are always present in the water, but healthy pearl oysters seem to be capable of fighting off disease. When disease appears on a farm, it is almost always a sign that the pearl oysters have been subjected to some form of stress, which weakens the pearl oyster so it can no longer fight off disease organisms.

New diseases can also be introduced to which pearl oysters have no resistance. In most cases where disease has been epidemic in farming areas, it appears to be related to crowding, poor farming practices or problems in transport. The best way to prevent diseases is to keep pearl oysters in good condition so they can resist diseases. Prevention is also important because there are no known cures for pearl oyster diseases.

Harvesting Oyster
Harvesting Oyster

Causes of stress that may bring on disease include:

  • Polluted water from boats, villages, factories or the farm itself; Prevent stress by locating farms in areas with clean water or upcurrent of pollution sources. Do everything possible to keep the farm area clean, including not discarding the waste material from cleaning pearl oysters in this area.
  • Crowded conditions with too many pearl oysters in the same area; Prevent crowding by keeping only 10-15 pearl oysters per chaplet, not crowding pearl oysters in lantern baskets, keeping main lines at least 66 ft (20 m) apart and farms at least 1650 ft (500 m) apart.
  • Rough handling; Handle pearl oysters gently and work quickly to minimize the time they are out of the water.
  • Exposure to heat and cold; Keep temperatures constant during handling and transporting by  shielding pearl oysters from heat and by using coolers for extended transport periods.
  • Nucleus implantation “grafting or seeding;” Grafting is a very stressful process. Pearl oysters must be handled gently during and after grafting.
  • Minimize the risks by hiring a good technician and following his or her instructions for post-grafting care of the oyster
  • Transporting to other areas;Transporting pearl oysters over long distances is not a good idea for several reasons. The trip itself issufficiently stressful that pearl oysters may become sick and die afterwards. Transferring pearl oystersbetween areas may also introduce new diseases.
  • Additionally, there is evidence that pearl oysters fromdifferent lagoons may be genetically different. This means that pearl oysters are best adapted to theirnative lagoon environment and may be more susceptible to diseases when transplanted to a new area.
  • Too many fouling organisms on the shell;Fouling organisms can weaken pearl oysters by competing for food or by boring into the shell. Preventthis by cleaning the pearl oysters regularly.
  • Lack of food due to crowding or being held at the wrong depth;Keep the pearl oysters at a depth of 19-23 ft (6-7 m) or at depths where you have seen the best growth.Follow the guidelines for proper spacing given above to ensure that pearl oysters receive enough foodand oxygen through good water exchange.
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Introduction of new disease from other areas.
Bringing in pearl oysters from other areas, particularly those areas where farming is intensive, may
introduce new diseases and should be avoided. If you do bring pearl oysters in from areas outside the
lagoon, set up a quarantine area far away from the farming area and keep pearl oysters there for a month so you can observe them before transferring them to your farm.

What to do if disease strikes

  • Disease can strike without warning and kill many pearl oysters in a short period of
    time.
  • Disease can spread rapidly and kill quickly. You may not notice that the pearl oysters are beginning to die until it is too late unless you visit the farm often. If you notice that more than a few pearl oysters have died recently, try to determine if some factor is stressing the animals.
  • There should be very little mortality on a farm except during the month following grafting. Even after grafting, mortalities should not exceed 5-10% of grafted pearl oysters. Correct this if possible by following the guidelines listed above. Usually crowding, excessive fouling organisms on the shell and/or rough handling during transport are to blame. Take action immediately, so the situation will not worsen and jeopardize more of your pearl oysters
  • If pearl oysters begin to die, avoid moving the possibly afflicted ones to areas with healthy pearl oysters and risking spreading the disease.

 

pearls grafting
pearls anatomy

Other causes of death or poor health

  • Pearl oysters can also suffer from predation or fouling that may ruin their commercial value, health or even kill them.
  • Fouling organisms such as sponges and burrowing worms (polychaetes) can damage and weaken the shell by boring into it. Other fouling organisms may not directly attack the pearl oyster, but as they accumulate and become heavy, they prevent the pearl oyster from feeding normally and thus weaken it.
  • Prevent damage from fouling organisms by regularly cleaning the pearl oysters. Some lagoon areas may have higher fouling rates. If your farm area suffers from a heavy degree of fouling, consider moving it to another area.
  • Although more difficult, some animals also prey upon pearl oysters. These predators include certain kinds of snails, crabs, fish and octopus. Snails and crabs are most often a problem in lantern baskets or other containers. They must be removed by hand and killed. Fish and octopus can also attack larger pearl oysters, although small pearl oysters are still most vulnerable. Keep the spat in lantern baskets or cages if you have problems with mortality caused by these animals. Snails and crabs are most likely to attack spat because their shells are weaker.

Article source: The Basic Methods of Pearl Farming, Author: A Layman’s ManualMaria Haws, Ph.D. (Director, Pearl Research and Training Program, Pacific Aquaculture and Coastal Resources Center, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hilo, HI 96720 USA, Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture, Publication No. 127, March 2002)
south sea pearls wholesaleFor Questions and answer you can contact & chat with us on:

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We send your purchasing parcel via FedEx, we inform you the tracking number as soon as possible

We send your purchasing parcel via FedEx, we inform you the tracking number as soon as possible

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We send your purchasing parcel via FedEx, we inform you the tracking number as soon as possible

This is my name, my phone number and my address, as a sender (written by FedEx)
This is my name, my phone number and my address, as a sender (written by FedEx)

We send your purchasing parcel via FedEx, we inform you the tracking number as soon as possible
We send your purchasing parcel via FedEx, we inform you the tracking number as soon as possible

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Pearls Farming : Spat collection

Pearls Farming : Spat collection

wholesale pearlsSpat collection is the best means of supplying a farm with young pearl oysters of the right age for grafting. If spat collection is biologically possible in your area, it is the preferred means of obtaining spat. Collecting adult, wild oysters can threaten the wild populations and most of these animals are too old to produce high quality pearls. Hatchery-produced spat are a good option if available and reasonably priced, but there are very few Black-Lip pearl oyster hatcheries.

What is spat collection?

pearls cultivation
pearls cultivation

The pearl oyster has several different life stages (Figure 5-life cycle). During the first 2-3 weeks of life, the pearl oyster larva can swim freely. It then begins to look for a place to which it can attach itself, such as a reef or the shell of another pearl oyster, to spend its adult life. The transition from free swimming larva to settled juvenile is called metamorphosis. Metamorphosis lasts 2-3 days and major changes occur in the anatomy and behavior of the pearl oyster during this time. Metamorphosis is also call “setting” or “settling” because attachment of the juvenile to a substrate is one of the main changes that occurs throughout a pearl oyster’s life cycle. The small, juvenile pearl oyster that has passed through metamorphosis and attached itself is called a “spat.”

Important things to remember in spat collection Choose materials that increase the probability of spat set. Spat collectors are designed to offer a protected area where spat can settle and grow safely. Pearl oyster larvae generally prefer to attach to dark materials that offer shelter from predators. Many types of materials have been used with success. These include pearl oyster shells, nursery shade cloth (55% shade), black plastic strips (polyethylene sheeting), coconut husks, bundles of brushy twigs such as “miki-miki” (Pemphis acidulus) or commercial spat collection material. Plastic materials, especially nursery shade cloth, work best because these are lightweight and can easily be reused. Other materials will collect spat, but tend to be so heavy that extra care is needed to ensure the spat collector lines do not sink.

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Correct placement of the spat collectors will improve the likelihood of good spat set.
Selecting a good area to place spat collectors can be difficult the first time spat collection is attempted. Generally, protected areas such as lagoons or bays are best since it is assumed that larvae are retained in these areas long enough to mature and set on the collectors. Lagoons with high rates of water exchange or open-ocean areas are usually less likely to produce good spat set because larvae produced in these areas may be flushed out by tides and currents. Areas within a lagoon where large numbers of pearl oysters are found are also likely to produce good spat collection. Look also for areas where there are gyres or eddies in the current, which may help retain spat in the location. Areas where there are a
number of coral pinnacles near the surface may also be good, since currents may slow near the pinnacles, especially on the leeward sides.

Keep spat collectors as near the surface as possible.
Materials hung near the surface of the water appear to collect the most spat. Keep collectors within 3-5 ft (1-2 m) of the surface by hanging collectors on very shallow main lines. Do not attempt to use the farm lines to hang spat collectors since these are too deep. Add floats at frequent intervals on the line to prevent sagging. Collectors that sink below 5 ft (2 m) rarely collect Black-Lip oyster spat, although they may collect other types of animals and plants.

Locating spat collectors in calm areas prevents loss of spat. Young spat are capable of detaching their byssal threads and moving if environmental conditions are not suitable. This may happen if the spat collectors are in rough areas. Once you have seen spat set, you can lower the lines so they experience less movement.

Making the collectors

indonesia south sea pearls cultivation
Indonesia south sea pearls cultivation

Using shade cloth or plastic materials The spat collectors should be about 3 ft (1 m) in length if using shade cloth or other plastic materials. The material is first cut into strips that measure 3-5 in (7-8 cm) in width. Thread these onto a length of 1/8-in (4-mm) polypropylene rope in accordion fashion (See Figure 13-shade cloth spat collector). The material should be packed onto the rope firmly, but not tightly. Snugly packing the material onto the line creates a collector with a large amount of surface area and protected areas where spat are safe from predators. Tie knots at the top and bottom of the collector to keep the material from slipping off the rope. You may wish to tie a knot in the middle of the collector line to keep the material from sliding down and bunching at the bottom once it becomes
heavy with fouling.

Figure 13. Making a spat collector out of shade cloth. Shade cloth is cut in strips and thread onto a line. The shade cloth is then compressed to form a bushy mass of shade cloth to provide shelter for young spat. Leave about 13 in (30 cm) of rope free at the end of the collector so it can be tied onto the spat collector main line using a slipknot (see Figure 14-knot for tying spat collectors or chaplets onto the main line).

Figure 14. Collectors should be tied on to the mainline using a knot that can be easily tied and untied using one hand, such as the knot shown here. This knot can be easily broken loose even when fouling organisms have covered the line.

Using plant materials or shells: If using miki-miki or some other brushy material, leave the small leaves and twigs in place and cut the branches in lengths of about 22 in (50 cm). Then tie them together with rope or monofilament. Leave enough extra line to tie the bundle onto the main line. If using coconut husks (the inner, brown husk), make a hole in the end of each coconut half. Shred the coconut husk so that a furry mass is created.

Using a piece of 1/8-in (14-mm) polypropylene rope, tie a knot at one end, then thread on a coconut husk. Tie another knot about 8 in (20 cm) above this and add another coconut half. Repeat this until 5 or 6 coconut halves are on the collector and then hang it on the main line.

The same can be done using pearl oyster shells. This is a good use for old or broken shells. Drill a hole through the center of the shells and thread them on the collector line, using knots to keep the shells from touching each other. Shells that have been aged in the sun will work best. When using any of the heavier materials, the spat collector line will need more floats and will have to be checked more often to be sure it does not sink.

Setting the collectors in the lagoon
Collectors should be set on main lines as close to the surface as possible. Locating and maintaining collectors within 3 ft (1 m) from the surface of the water is ideal. It may be necessary to set the collectors a bit lower if boats pass through the area, but do not set the collectors deeper than 6 ft (2 m). When tying the collectors to the main line, use a slipknot that holds firmly, but that can be tied and untied using one hand (Figure 15-slip knot for tying spat collectors onto main line).

Space the collectors about 8 in (20 cm) apart to prevent them from getting tangled up with each other. If your main line sags more than 6.5 ft (2 m) between floats, try using empty plastic drink bottles to serve as “mini-floats” along the sagging part of the line to keep the collectors high in the water. A second method for deploying spat collectors is to tie them onto a line on land, which is then attached to the main line. This method has the advantage of allowing most of the work to be done on land, rather than in the water. When the time comes to harvest the spat, the collectors and the line they are attached to are removed from the water. The main line is left in place.

Spat bags may help protect the spat from predators.
Spat bags are fine-mesh bags that are used to enclose the collectors in order to protect them from predators. These have been used with mixed results. Spat bags are best used when the main cause of predation is fish picking off the small spat. They may also be useful in areas that are often rough, since spat falling off the collectors will be retained inside the bag. However, if predation by snails or crabs is a problem, spat bags may only worsen the problem by retaining the predators near the collectors. Also, once the mesh of the spat bag is fouled, there will be little spat set. It is recommended that the effectiveness of spat bags be tested along with unenclosed collectors the first time spat collection is done in a new area.

Keep collectors at least 160 ft (50 m) from reef areas to prevent predation. Reefs shelter fish and other animals that eat spat. Keeping the collectors as far away as possible from these areas will help prevent losses due to predation. When to set out spat collectors Spat set will be heaviest about 1 month after the high annual water temperatures occur.

Pearl oysters spawn (produce eggs and sperm) when water temperatures are highest, although they will usually spawn at lower levels during the entire year. Setting out collectors about 1 month before the peak spawning season will improve your chances of capturing large numbers of spat.

In the southern hemisphere, peak spawning seasons are in October and November, with a smaller peak in March and April. Pearl farmers there set out spat collectors in late September and October. In the northern hemisphere, very little spat collection has been done, so the peak spawning time is unknown. In many areas, the highest water temperatures occur in July and August, so these may be the best times to set out spat collectors. It is recommended that in areas where spat collection has not been previously done, the pearl farmer set out some collectors every month during the first year and keep a record of the times when the best settlement of spat occurs. Keeping a weekly record of water temperatures may also help provide information that suggests best times to deploy spat collectors.

Maintaining the spat collection line

Pearls Farm
Pearls Farm

The most important part of maintaining the spat collection line is keeping it high in the water. As spat, other animals and plants begin to settle on the collectors and main line, they begin to weigh down the line. If the line sinks below 6 ft (2 m), very few spat will set on the collectors. You should check the spat collector line at least every week. Keep the main line high in the water by cleaning the line often and adding more floats as needed. Inspect the collectors to see if any spat have settled. Be sure to look at the center of the collector for small, hidden spat since they tend to seek protection there. Keep monthly records of the number of spat settling on collectors. This will allow you to determine which time of year is best for setting out spat collectors.

Identifying Black-Lip pearl oyster spat
Generally Black-Lip pearl oyster spat can be easily identified when they reach a size of 1/2 in (1 cm). Spat reach this size about 2 months after setting. Very small spat can sometimes be confused with other species of oysters (Pinctada radiata or Pinctada maculata), which look very similar to small spat. Small Black-Lip pearl oyster spat are distinguished by being entirely or partially green, particularly in the area near the umbo. The predominant green color is most obvious when the spat are smaller than approximately 1/2 in (1 cm). As the spat grows, there may only be a hint of green near the umbo, while
the rest of the spat is brown or brownish-green. Other species tend to be entirely brown, orange or yellow.

Black-Lip pearl oyster spat also tend to have fewer streaks of white in their shells and when they do occur the streaks usually do not reach back to the umbo area, but are confined to the middle or edge of the shell. The smallest spat (less than approximately 1 in or 2 cm) tend to be smooth. Later small growth process (spines) appears. The small spines on Black-Lip pearl oysters are wider and flatter than the spines on similar species, and may be broader at the tips than the base. The spines on Black-Lip pearl oysters also tend to be more rounded on the ends and crowded together. If in doubt, keep the spat until they are large enough to positively identify their species. Consulting with an experienced farmer or extension agent may also be helpful.

When spat appear on collectors
When spat are large enough to be identified, you have two choices of what to do next.

  1. Cut (never pull) the spat off the collectors and keep them in lantern baskets. The lantern baskets have the advantage of protecting the spat from predators and fewer spat will be lost due to falling off the spat collectors. This option is more costly and requires more maintenance. The lantern baskets should be cleaned and inspected weekly for the presence of predators such as snails and
    crabs.
  2. Leave the spat on the collectors until they are large enough to drill and hang on chaplets. Spat are large enough to be drilled when they reach a size of 4 inches (8-10 cm), or are large enough to put in panels. If you wait to remove them from the collectors until after the spat are larger, be prepared to add more floats to the spat collector lines since they will become very heavy and sink. In addition, you may lose some spat to predators this way to predators or they may fall off the collector. However, if spat settlement is heavy, this option is less expensive and more efficient.
  3. After removing the spat, the collectors can be dried for a few weeks, cleaned and reused. Caring for the spat Spat are like all young animals; they are weak and easy to damage. Spat should be handled gently at all times, and never more than necessary. Most importantly, never pull the byssal threads out of a spat, as this will kill them. Always gently cut the byssal threads.
golden_pearl_harvesting
Golden pearl harvesting

Spat are very sensitive to heat and drying out.
If you must handle them, do not leave them out of the water for more than a few minutes. When out of the water, keep them cool and shaded. Give spat plenty of room to grow. When spat are kept in lantern baskets, they tend to attach themselves to each other. You should check the lantern baskets at least once a week and gently cut the spat apart if they are attached. Make sure that each spat has at least 4 in (10 cm) between it and other spat, whether they are kept in lantern baskets or panels.

Protect the spat from predators.
Carefully inspect lantern baskets at least once a week for predators like snails and crabs and exterminate them. If spat are kept on the collectors or in some type of container that is not enclosed, be sure to keep these at least 165 ft (50 m) from reef areas to lower the risk of predation from fish and octopus. Once spat are removed from the collectors they can be kept at a depth of 19-23 ft (6-7m).

Hang lantern baskets or panels containing spat at a depth of 19-23 ft (6-7 m). If keeping spat on the collectors until they are large, the main line holding these collectors can be allowed to sink slightly. What to do if the spat collectors do not collect any spat In some areas, it may be difficult to collect many spat. You should expect to collect at least 1 or 2 spat on each collector, although more is ideal. If the collectors do not yield this number of spat after 6-8 months in the water, see if any of the following tips help:

  • The collectors may be too deep. If you see spat setting on the ropes and floats, but not the collectors, this may be a sign that the collectors are too low in the water. Make sure all collectors are no deeper than 6 ft (2 m). Add more floats at any part of the line that sags below 6 ft (2 m).
  • The collectors may be too shallow. In some cases, you may observe that a large number of other bivalves are settling on the collectors. If you see Black-Lip spat anywhere on the anchor lines lower than the collectors, you may need to lower the collectors to the same depth.

Be sure the water currents are not too strong near the main line.
Try to put the lines in fairly calm water or spat may fall off the line. Try other locations in the lagoon. Spat settlement will be uneven throughout a lagoon. The best areas are those where the water is calm or where eddies form, because spat will spend more time in these areas. Also try locations on the down current side of small patch reefs, since eddies may occur here. Try putting collectors out each month to determine which time is best. The best times of year to collect spat are still unknown in many regions. Periodic deployments throughout the year may be necessary to detect the best times.

Collectors lose their effectiveness if fouled with other organisms.
If collectors are set out more than 2-3 months before the peak spawning season, other organisms will colonize the collectors first and possibly prevent pearl oyster spat from settling. If the collectors are becoming colonized with other animals, the collectors should be removed from the water, cleaned and deployed again. Try different types of materials for making the collectors. If a first attempt using materials other than shade cloth or other plastic materials specifically made for spat collection has failed, you may have to switch materials. Materials such as shells, coconut husks or miki-miki may not work if they have sunk too deep.

Harvesting Oyster
Harvesting Oyster

Article source: The Basic Methods of Pearl Farming, Author: A Layman’s ManualMaria Haws, Ph.D. (Director, Pearl Research and Training Program, Pacific Aquaculture and Coastal Resources Center, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hilo, HI 96720 USA, Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture, Publication No. 127, March 2002)
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We send your purchasing parcel via FedEx, we inform you the tracking number as soon as possible
We send your purchasing parcel via FedEx, we inform you the tracking number as soon as possible
abdurrachim pearl fedex
We send your purchasing parcel via FedEx, we inform you the tracking number as soon as possible
This is my name, my phone number and my address, as a sender (written by FedEx)
This is my name, my phone number and my address, as a sender (written by FedEx)
We send your purchasing parcel via FedEx, we inform you the tracking number as soon as possible
We send your purchasing parcel via FedEx, we inform you the tracking number as soon as possible
one sample of inside the box of parcels abdurrachim missjoaquim pearl
one sample of inside the box of parcels

How to measure your ring size :
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For Questions and answer you can contact & chat with us on:

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abdurrachim pearl fedex
We send your purchasing parcel via FedEx, we inform you the tracking number as soon as possible
This is my name, my phone number and my address, as a sender (written by FedEx)
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We send your purchasing parcel via FedEx, we inform you the tracking number as soon as possible
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Handling and transport on Pearls Farm

Handling and transport on Pearls Farm

golden_pearl_harvesting
Golden pearl harvesting

The most important thing to remember when handling or transporting pearl oysters is that they are living animals and must be treated carefully. Rough treatment, exposure to heat or cold, and long periods out of the water can stress the pearl oyster. Stress is the primary cause of disease in aquatic animals. Even a short period of stress can weaken the pearl oyster so that it is more likely to become sick or produce a poor quality pearl. Pearl oysters are valuable animals and are sensitive to environmental changes. Each seeded pearl oyster is potentially worth hundreds or even thousands of dollars. Only a healthy pearl oyster can produce a high quality pearl, and it may only take a short period of stress to damage the developing pearl. It is well worth the extra time and effort required to keep the pearl oysters alive and healthy.

The basics of safe handling
wholesale pearlsClean pearl oysters and equipment before handling and transporting. Cleaning pearl oysters and the equipment used to clean them helps prevent infections or contamination with chemicals. It is particularly important to clean any equipment that has come into contact with oil or gas. Cleaning the pearl oysters of fouling animals and plants before transport is also especially necessary because these organisms may die during transportation, resulting in decomposing matter that consumes oxygen and produces toxins that could harm the pearl oysters. Pearl oysters should be cleaned with a wire brush or knife. This should be done very gently without breaking the shell, since this slows the growth of the pearl oyster. Always bury the waste produced by cleaning on land or dispose of it in the sea outside of the lagoon. Never put the waste in the water near the pearl oysters as it not only pollutes the water, but as it rots it will also harm the oysters.

Only clean saltwater should be allowed to contact the pearl oysters. The only time that freshwater should contact the pearl oysters is if it is used as a quick rinse to help prevent fouling. Immersion for more than a few minutes in freshwater can kill pearl oysters. Similarly, dirty seawater or seawater that is warmer or colder than the water in which the pearl oysters were grown can also be harmful.

During transport, pearl oysters prefer to be moist rather than submerged in water without an air supply. When pearl oysters are immersed in water, they open their shells and try to breathe. In small containers of water with no source of air, pearl oysters will suffocate quickly. If the pearl oysters are kept wrapped in materials such as burlap bags or papers that are moistened in clean seawater, they keep their shells closed and will not dry out or suffocate for long periods of time. If kept in the shade, they can survive for several hours out of the water this way.

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Always keep pearl oysters lying flat on their side when out of the water.

Pearl oysters cannot close their shells tightly enough to prevent water from escaping. If they are kept out of the water in a vertical position, the water trapped inside their shells will quickly leak out. The pearl oysters will then open their shells to try to breathe and will dry out. Laying pearl oysters lying on their sides helps keep them moist. Protect pearl oysters from exposure to heat, cold, drying out, rough handling, dirt and chemicals.

Any of these things can kill or shock pearl oysters. Avoid these by limiting how much time pearl
oysters spend out of the water and follow the guidelines listed above. Minimize the amount of time pearl oysters are kept out of the water. If kept moist and lying on their sides and if not exposed to heat or sun, pearl oysters can generally remain out of the water for about 20-30 minutes before gaping. However, if possible, avoid exposing pearl oysters for even this length of time.
Handle pearl oysters gently and with care. Rough treatment can break the pearl oyster’s shell or shock the animal, either of which can slow pearl development or affect the quality.

How to collect pearl oysters
Remove pearl oysters by gently cutting the byssal threads, not by pulling it free. Pearl oysters anchor themselves to the reef or other hard substrate by threads called “byssal threads” or “byssus.” Because the byssal threads are attached to the internal organs, harvesting a pearl oyster by pulling the byssal threads free can damage the organs and kill it. This is especially important to note after the pearl oyster has been grafted. Pulling on the byssal threads can affect formation of the pearl. If the pearl oyster attaches to the chaplet or panel, cut it loose.

pearls cultivation
pearls cultivation

Transporting pearl oysters in coolers
Pearl oysters can be transported without water if kept cool and moist. The best way to do this is by using a Styrofoam or plastic cooler (also called ice chests or chiller bins). First, scrub the cooler with clean seawater. Then put a layer of paper or cloth dampened with clean seawater in the bottom. Next put in a layer of pearl oysters. Cover the pearl oysters with more damp paper or cloth. More layers of alternating pearl oysters and wet cloth or paper are then added. Keep the cooler cool by placing it in the shade. You can add a very small amount of ice, but be careful not to let water collect at the bottom of the cooler (use a cooler with a drain if you plan to use ice). Pearl oysters will die if left soaking in accumulated water, whether freshwater or seawater. It is better to use ice packs, which can be frozen and reused. Although pearl oysters have been shipped successfully using this method for periods up to 24 hours, try and limit the time in the cooler to 5 or 6 hours. Keep the temperature inside at 26-28°C (about the same temperature as the seawater from which they came).

The pearl oysters should be kept cool, but not cold, since this may weaken them. Handle the cooler gently without allowing it to get jostled in the boat. Transporting pearl oysters on the deck of a boat Avoid transporting pearl oysters where contaminated air or water is present. Transporting pearl oysters on the deck of a boat is a common practice, but if the pearl oysters are exposed to oil, gas or heat in the air or in the water, they could die. The deck of a boat is often full of water that contains oil or gas from the outboard engine. Try and keep the oysters on a platform or in a container away from this oily water.

Pearl oysters should never be kept in standing water in an enclosed area like a boat deck, or in a bucket. When pearl oysters sit in a small amount of water, they open their shells and try to breathe and feed. The oxygen in this small amount of water is used up quickly and the pearl oyster will suffocate and die. It is better to transport pearl oysters in baskets, panels or damp sacks so that any water will drain out. Pearl oysters do much better if kept just a little moist and cool, but not wet. Pearl oysters must be protected from the heat of the sun. Always cover pearl oysters with a moist sack or palm leaves when exposed to sun. Try to transport pearl oysters during the coolest times of day. You can also occasionally douse them with fresh seawater, as long as this water does not accumulate around them.

Limit transport on deck to 30 minutes or less.
If you have to transport pearl oysters for longer than 30 minutes, try to use coolers. At the very least, wet the pearl oysters with clean seawater, taking care that the water drains away.
Transporting pearl oysters in tanks Pearl oysters can be transported for longer periods of time using special seawater tanks, but you must have a pump to keep water flowing in and out of the tanks at all times.

It is rarely necessary to transport pearl oysters for such long distances that tanks need to be used. Transporting pearl oysters in tanks is more expensive and complicated than other methods. In addition, transport tanks require special materials for building the tanks and pumping system. It is also possible that something will go wrong with the pump and the pearl oysters will die. If you need to use tanks to transport many pearl oysters or to transport them over long distances, you should contact your aquaculture extension agent for advice on how to properly build and operate the tank.

Article source: The Basic Methods of Pearl Farming, Author: A Layman’s ManualMaria Haws, Ph.D. (Director, Pearl Research and Training Program, Pacific Aquaculture and Coastal Resources Center, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hilo, HI 96720 USA, Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture, Publication No. 127, March 2002)
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abdurrachim pearl fedex
We send your purchasing parcel via FedEx, we inform you the tracking number as soon as possible

This is my name, my phone number and my address, as a sender (written by FedEx)
This is my name, my phone number and my address, as a sender (written by FedEx)

We send your purchasing parcel via FedEx, we inform you the tracking number as soon as possible
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General pearls farm management

General pearls farm management

wholesale pearlsTending the farm is an important part of producing good pearls. Growing pearl oysters is the same as growing any crop; the farm must be tended often for the pearl oysters to grow well and produce high quality pearls. The following are the most important farm management activities:
Visit the farm at least every 2 days to inspect it for any maintenance needs. When visiting the farm, look for damaged or missing lines and floats. Be sure the depth of the line is 16-19 ft (5-6 m). If needed, adjust the depth of the line by adding floats or tightening the anchor lines.
Make sure none of the pearl oysters have fallen off or been stolen. Count how many pearl oysters have died and keep a record of this. Frequent visits will also allow you to judge when the pearl oysters need to be cleaned.

golden_pearl_harvesting
Golden pearl harvesting

Clean the pearl oysters and lines monthly.
Pearl oysters must be cleaned of the fouling organisms that grow on their shells. If left for long periods, these organisms can bore through the shell or compete with the pearl oysters for food. Some types of fouling organisms can grow between the shells and prevent the pearl oyster from closing completely. Fouling on the lines and pearl oysters can cause the line to sink under the increased weight. Frequent cleaning will make the job easier by removing the fouling organisms while they are still small and easily removed.

Cleaning can be done by gently cutting off the fouling organisms with a knife or a steel-wire brush. Mechanized cleaning machines that use high power jets to remove fouling are available. Another alternative is to use a high-pressure hydraulic sprayer designed for use with seawater. It is important to understand that cleaning is stressful for the pearl oysters, and if done too roughly or too frequently, could lead to poor quality pearls. Pearl oysters should not be cleaned more often than once a month, because they need time to recover from the stress. It is usually not necessary to clean them more frequently than this at any rate. The farmer must strike a balance between keeping the pearl oysters sufficiently clean, not over-stressing the animal and wasting valuable time.

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There may be certain areas within a lagoon where farming occurs more rapidly than in others. If you experience very heavy fouling or fouling by particularly damaging organisms such as the boring sponge, you might want to consider moving the farm. Always handle the pearl oysters gently during cleaning. Avoid keeping pearl oysters out of the water for more than 20 minutes or so. The oysters should always be laid on their sides so that water does not leak out of the shell. If the pearl oysters begin to open, that indicates they have been kept out of the water too long.

When cleaning by hand with knives, try to be as gentle as possible. Avoid breaking the edge of the shell. Regrowing shell takes energy and this could slow down pearl development. Do not throw the waste from cleaning into the lagoon or farm area. Wastes from cleaning, dead pearl oysters or other trash will pollute the water and could harm the pearl oysters. It should be buried on land or disposed of at sea outside of the lagoon area.

Keep records of the work you do.
Write down the work done each time you visit the farm; for example, how many new pearl oysters were added to the farm, how many died, how much was spent on materials for the farm and any other information. Thorough records are useful for keeping track of costs, losses and if any problem such as disease or mortality occurs, the records may provide information that may help you determine the cause.

Pearls Grafting
Pearls Grafting

Keep the pearl oysters healthy by collecting and handling them properly.
See the “Handling and transport” section on Page 35 for guidelines on handling pearl oysters.
Prevent predators from eating or damaging pearl oysters. All pearl oysters are vulnerable to attack from predators, but small spat are especially likely to be eaten by predators. When using containers such as lantern baskets or trays to hold small pearl oyster spat, check regularly for predators such as crabs or snails, which easily invade and hide in these containers. Predatory snails (Cymatium spp.) can kill several pearl oysters once they enter a container. Snails tend to hide in crevices and under pearl oysters, so a thorough, weekly inspection is needed. The main threat to pearl oysters hanging on chaplets are predatory fishes such as trigger fish and rays, which have strong jaws capable of crushing even adult pearl oysters.

Protect the farm from vandalism and theft.
Theft and vandalism commonly cause economic losses on pearl oyster farms. Prevent this by siting the farm where you can watch it from your house. At the very least, try to keep its location a secret by submerging the entire farm. Farms have sometimes lost up to 20% of their pearls to theft. Pearls are valuable and farms are often left unattended. Anyone entering your farm should be monitored at all times.
Article source: The Basic Methods of Pearl Farming, Author: A Layman’s ManualMaria Haws, Ph.D. (Director, Pearl Research and Training Program, Pacific Aquaculture and Coastal Resources Center, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hilo, HI 96720 USA, Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture, Publication No. 127, March 2002)
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This is my name, my phone number and my address, as a sender (written by FedEx)
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We send your purchasing parcel via FedEx, we inform you the tracking number as soon as possible
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Preparing the pearl oysters for hanging on the farm

Preparing the pearl oysters for hanging on the farm

indonesia south sea pearls cultivation
Indonesia south sea pearls cultivation

There are many ways to hold adult pearl oysters including chaplets, lantern baskets, pocket nets and floating or submerged trays (see Figure 11 – different ways of holding pearl oysters-chaplets, lantern baskets, pocket panels). You must decide which method is best for your location and budget. Chaplets are the easiest and least expensive method, and can be made from line that is easily obtainable. The various containers (lantern baskets, pocket panels or trays) are particularly useful in protecting smaller pearl oysters or spat from predators, but are more expensive and must either be purchased or manufactured using special materials.

wholesale pearlsA variety of containers are commonly used to hold adult pearl oysters or larger spat. Gervis and Sims (1992). The most commonly used type is a pocket panel that holds 10 or 20 pearl osyters. Whichever method you choose to use, be sure that you carefully clean the pearl oysters each time you move them or transfer them into new containers. Proper spacing of pearl oysters is important as crowding can lead to stress and disease. Pearl oysters are powerful filter feeders and will filter a large amount of water each day to obtain enough algae to keep themselves fed. If too many adult pearl oysters are crowded together, they may not be able to obtain enough food from the surrounding water to keep Figure 10. Oysters hanging from chaplets. them healthy.

Guidelines for keeping pearl oysters on chaplets or in containers
For chaplets:

  • Hang only 10-15 pearl oysters on each chaplet, spacing them about 9 in (20 cm) apart on the chaplet.
  • Although it is common to hang 20 or more pearl oysters on a single chaplet, this makes the chaplet longer, heavier and harder to handle. It may also lead to crowding on the farm, resulting in disease or reduced pearl quality. When tying the chaplets on the main line, leave at least 38 in (1 m) of space between the chaplets.
  • Main lines should be spaced at least 66 ft (20 m) apart on a farm. This spacing helps to keep the chaplets and lines from getting tangled and prevents crowding.
  • If uing chaplets, you must first clean and then drill the pearl oysters. Use a 1/8-in drill bit to drill a hole near the pointed edge of the shell (the ear) towards the back of the shell. Figure 12 shows an external view of a pearl oyster indicating the spot for drilling. Be careful not to drill into the meat of the animal.
  • Use a length of 18-gauge stainless steel wire to attach the pearl oyster to the chaplet or 80-lb mono-filament (nylon fishing line).

When drilling many pearl oysters, it is easiest to mount the drill solidly on a Figure 12. Pearl oysters should be drilled in the “ear”, the corner of the shell opposite the byssal notch taking care not to drill through the internal tissues. Then the pearl oyster can be attached to the chaplet line using either stainless steel wire or mono-filament (fishing line). table rather than holding it in your hand. Farms where there is no electricity commonly use 12-volt drills powered by car batteries. Chaplets and the lengths of stainless steel wires can be reused many times.

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One problem that may be encountered when using chaplets is that the mono-filament line or stainless steel wire used to attach the pearl oysters to the chaplets may break. If this happens, it is usually an indication that heavier line or wire is needed. Also, it may be a sign that the lines are experiencing too much motion due to wind or rough water. Sinking the lines a bit deeper or choosing a calmer area for the farm may help solve this problem.

For panels, trays and lantern baskets: When using containers of any type, it is important to prevent crowding. Adult oysters should not touch each other when kept in containers. Try to leave a space of at least 4 in (10 cm) around each pearl oyster. Fast-growing pearl oysters have shell edges with many small, flattened spines giving it a frilly appearance. If your pearl oysters do not look like this, they are not growing quickly and you should try giving them more space.

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If using panels, trays or lantern baskets, clean the pearl oysters first. Soak the new panels, trays or lantern baskets in salt water for 1 week before using, helping to remove any possible contamination from the equipment. Pocket panels are most commonly used for adult pearl oysters and usually hold 6 to 18 animals. One difficulty with panels is that they tend to foul rapidly and frequent cleaning is needed. It is helpful to transfer pearl oysters into new panels at each periodic cleaning, then mend the old panels and let them dry until needed again. Mending and drying of the panels can then be done during leisure hours and the pearl oysters can be returned to the water immediately. A helpful hint when using pocket panels is to insert the pearl oysters into the panels with the byssal notch facing outwards (towards the frame). The pearl oysters will commonly attach themselves to the mesh of the panel and it is easiest to cut them free if the attachment is on the outer edge of the panel.

With very small pearl oysters (less than 4 in or 10 cm in length), it may be necessary to tie the opening of the pockets closed with a piece of line to keep them from being dislodged in rough weather. Lantern baskets are best used for spat, since they are too cumbersome to work with when adult pearl oysters are kept in them. Lantern baskets must be kept clean and inspected frequently for predators. Trays can be used for either adults or spat, but offer the disadvantage of providing little protection unless covered. As with lantern baskets, they must be cleaned and inspected frequently.
Article source: The Basic Methods of Pearl Farming, Author: A Layman’s ManualMaria Haws, Ph.D. (Director, Pearl Research and Training Program, Pacific Aquaculture and Coastal Resources Center, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hilo, HI 96720 USA, Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture, Publication No. 127, March 2002)
south sea pearls wholesaleFor Questions and answer you can contact & chat with us on:

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We send your purchasing parcel via FedEx, we inform you the tracking number as soon as possible

We send your purchasing parcel via FedEx, we inform you the tracking number as soon as possible

abdurrachim pearl fedex
We send your purchasing parcel via FedEx, we inform you the tracking number as soon as possible

This is my name, my phone number and my address, as a sender (written by FedEx)
This is my name, my phone number and my address, as a sender (written by FedEx)

We send your purchasing parcel via FedEx, we inform you the tracking number as soon as possible
We send your purchasing parcel via FedEx, we inform you the tracking number as soon as possible

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one sample of inside the box of parcels

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