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Wholesale pearl jewelry sets : Trading with China in Jewellery

Wholesale pearl jewelry sets : Trading with China in Jewellery

wa mj ar pearls wholesaleAlong with expansion of bilateral trade between India and China, trade in gems and jewellery has also gone up. India enjoys reputation in China as the premier processing base for diamond and gold jewellery. In 2003 Gems and Jewellery was the fifth largest item of India’s exports to China. India occupies the number three position among nations exporting precious stones and metals to China. India’s exports of gems and jewellery to China, the bulk of it being diamond, increased by 62.1% in 2003 demonstrating the vibrancy of the trade market. It is essential to understand the trade patterns in jewellery as well as trade channels available for any successful trade deal. (reference: wholesale pearl jewelry sets )

This chapter contains information on the following:

1. Foreign Trade system in China

  • Role of FTCs o Getting to know the right contacts
  • China’s trade with the rest of the world on gems and jewellery
  • China’s exports
  • China’s imports

2. China’s Gems and Jewellery trade with India

  • Detailed trends of India’s exports
  • Main competitors for India
  • India’s imports from China
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I. Foreign Trading System in China
Before reforms and opening up in 1979, China’s foreign trade policy was determined almost wholly by political objectives. Trade policy was characterized by insistence on ‘self sufficiency’ and import-substitution. Authority to import and export was centralized in fewer than 20 foreign trade corporations (FTCs) under the Ministry of Foreign Trade. Each of these FTCs dealt only with specified commodities, under quota. The FTCs turned all foreign exchange earned from exports over to the Bank of China. Importers of consumer goods were minimal, and jewellery imports were nil. (reference: wholesale pearl jewelry sets )

Under reforms programmed, the policy of self sufficiency was replaced by a strategy of importing advanced technology to promote a rapid expansion in exports of manufactured goods. At the same time, the foreign trade monopoly of the FTCs was broken. The number of domestic companies with trading rights jumped from 900 in 1985 to 16000 in 2000. Moreover, the restrictions regulating the FTCs were gradually relaxed in terms of foreign exchange reserves requirements and product lines etc. Autonomy of the FTCs was also enhanced, as was their responsibility for profit and loss. In 1999, private domestic companies were given permission to apply for foreign trade rights. The competitive arena was further widened by replacing the application and permission-based system with one requiring only registration and ratification. (reference: wholesale pearl jewelry sets )

Before 1994, internal unpublished administrative measures and regulations governed China’s trade. The Foreign Trade Law of 1994 codified reforms and set principles for China’s trade regime more in line with WTO requirement for transparency. Under the 1994 law, FTCs became the agents of Chinese enterprises wishing to import or export goods. Large FTCs have a great deal of experience with international markets and practices. A new Foreign Trade Law has come into effect from July 2004, which substantially liberalizes foreign trade and enables producers/manufacturers to trade directly with a foreign entity. (reference: wholesale pearl jewelry sets )

Before China’s accession to the WTO, foreign invested manufacturing enterprises, including jewellery manufacturers and processors, were only allowed to import raw materials required for their production processes, and could only export their own finished products. Foreign companies had no choice but to trade through FTCs. In the run-up to the WTO, trade was allowed through wholly owned foreign enterprises (WOFE) operating in bonded zones, which could and export third party goods. Under WTO, China began the gradual extension of trading and distribution rights to foreign enterprises. Equity limits on foreign ownership of distribution companies will be phased out by December 11, 2004. (reference: wholesale pearl jewelry sets )

For foreign vendors without a presence in China, especially those selling their products into China for the first time, appointing an agent in Hong Kong can be a relatively easy and hassle-free method for importing into China. However, care should be exercised in choosing an agent. The exporter needs to check what kind of presence the agent has in China, and whether his other products conflict with the exporter’s products. In sectors like jewellery, smuggling used to a major problem in the past, but with the establishment of SDE and SGE, the incidence of smuggling has come down a lot. Trade in gold and diamond can now be conducted directly at the exchanges, rather than going through agents. (reference: wholesale pearl jewelry sets )

For trade with FTC directly, a foreign exporter can take recourse to any of the following means to identify and locate them:

  • Internet: Several internet sites have database of Chinese FTCs, usually indexed by both region and business scope (Customs HS Code). One example of such free internet-based database is the China Business Guide of Ministry of Commerce (www.ccn.mofcom.gov.cn )
  • Letters of introduction to overseas branches of FTCs or to their head offices.
  • Trade fairs: Guangdong trade fair held twice every year in April and October is a mega event with the aim of promoting Chinese exports to the rest of the world. A number of Indian companies have been participating in the fairs regularly. This apart, there are product specific exhibitions. A list of major jewellery-related exhibitions is given at appendix D in the resources section.

Embassies/Consulates: The Embassy of India in Beijing processes trade inquiries from India, both for prospective exports and imports. With the Embassy having its own website and e-mail facility, traders/businessmen in both India and China are being encouraged to communicate with the Embassy through e-mail. The trade queries received by the Mission are not only replied within a time-frame (3-4 days) by culling the necessary contact details of Indian exporters from an updated data base but are also sent to the respective Product councils, Chambers of Commerce and Associations in India which in turn publish the same in their newsletters thereby generating greater publicity and promoting business opportunities. The Embassy also organizes trade promotion events, provides support to export promotion councils and participates in and organizes exhibitions etc., e.g. the “Made in India” show co-organized with Confederation of Indian Industries in October 2003, which is planned to be repeated in 2004. (reference: wholesale pearl jewelry sets )

In dealing with smaller FTCs, it is advisable to ensure that it has the specific authority to deal with the goods in question. Under Chinese contract law, any contract by companies without trading rights in a particular product is null and void. Therefore, in cases of trade dispute arising with Chinese parties in the course of a trade transaction, whether or not legal recourse will be available will depend on whether the FTC is allowed to trade. In reality, however, most FTCs exceed their authority in a routine manner. A legitimate FTC should be able to supply a copy of its business license indicating its trading rights. A cautious approach is in order to secure one’s business and financial interests with a Chinese FTC. (reference: wholesale pearl jewelry sets )
Articles source: Gems & Jewellery Industry in China, Embassy of India, Beijing. (reference: wholesale pearl jewelry sets )
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We send your purchasing parcel via FedEx, we inform you the tracking number as soon as possible
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Taxation of export and import of jewellery products in China

Taxation of export and import of jewellery products in China

Production:
There are the following production-related taxes currently in force in China:

  • VAT: At present, production VAT is being imposed, though consumption VAT is being introduced in some sectors in the Northeast of China. There are two levels of taxes, namely a base rate of 17% and a low rate of 13%. Precious metal products and minerals that have not undergone processing are taxed at the rate of 13%. Processed stones and other precious metals jewellery are taxed at 17%. In order to simplify the tax administration, the State further decided that small scale producers with annual sales volume of less than one million RMB will pay taxes at the rate of 6%. Small scale wholesalers engaged in the jewellery industry with annual sales below 1.8 million RMB would pay taxes at the rate of 4%.
  • Resources Tax: Resources tax is imposed on those units which develop taxable mining products within China. This is a specific tax. For non-industrial and jewellery-grade diamond, resources tax is 10 RMB per carat, while for industrial diamond, it is 2 RMB per tonne.
  • Consumption tax: Consumption tax is an indirect tax imposed on consumers of particular consumer goods and it is being levied in China at present on items like cigarette, liquor, cosmetics and jewellery. Several jewellery items are taxed at the rate of 10%. Non-mounted diamond and diamond jewellery, diamond-inlaid precious metal jewellery and gold jewellery are taxed at 5%. There are some indications that the 5% consumption tax on gold jewellery might be revoked in 2004. China Gold Association has proposed to the State Administration of Taxation that the 5% consumption tax on gold jewellery be scrapped. It is reported that SAT has attached great importance to the matter and delivered it to the State Council. Consumption tax was 10% in 1993, which was reduced to 5% in 1994, when the tax burden was transferred from the consumers to the retailers.
  • Import: Imported raw materials for jewellery are taxed at a lower rate. For instance, MFN rates for sorted and unsorted natural pearls are respectively 25.8% and 25.7%, non-processed industrial diamond (both natural and synthetic) and diamond powder are free of tax, import tax on non-processed gemstones is 3%. Finished products are taxed at a higher rate. For instance tariffs on precious metal jewellery are 30% (25% under Bangkok Agreement). Rates have been falling since China’s accession to the WTO. Import tariffs for the year 2004 are given at appendix E in Resources section.
  • Export: Consumption tax is not imposed on export products. Export tax rebate is granted on export of gemstones (13%), diamond (17%) and natural and artificial pearls (5%).
  • Special taxation policies within SDE:
  • No import VAT/ consumption tax or tariff is levied on imported diamond traded directly within SDE.

  • Diamond traded within SDE is exempt from VAT and consumption tax.

  • Domestic diamond, once it enters SDE, is recognized as export, and export rebate is granted while consumption tax is exempted.

  • Diamond taken out of SDE for sale in the domestic market is taxed.

Articles source: Gems & Jewellery Industry in China, Embassy of India, Beijing
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This is my name, my phone number and my address, as a sender (written by FedEx)
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Jewelery Distribution Network in China

Jewellery Distribution Network in China

The mechanism of raw material supply and finished products circulation can be summarized as follows: Enterprises smelting precious metals and diamond trading companies sell raw materials like gold and diamond through exchange platforms (for instance Shanghai Gold Exchange and Shanghai Diamond Exchange) to jewellery enterprises (SGE/SDE members or units doing self-processing).

Then these jewellery enterprises can do the following:

  1. Wholesale trading of these raw materials to other non-SGE/SDE retail enterprises, who then sell it to ultimate consumers through their own retail shops.
  2. Sell it directly to the ultimate consumers through their own retail shops.
  3. Supply these as raw material to other non-SGE/SDE member retail enterprises who then distribute these to other non-SGE/SDE members or sell it directly to consumers through their own retail network. Sometimes these units entrust some SGE/SDE members to buy jewellery/raw materials in the exchanges on their behalf. The non-members can also supply the raw material thus acquired to the producing and processing firms.
  4. Supply these raw materials directly to the producing and processing firms, assigning them to produce jewellery of particular design. After production part is complete, the processing firms return them to the jewellery enterprises for marketing, or they themselves do wholesale marketing to non-member retail enterprises, who sell it to the ultimate consumers.

The major jewellery enterprises are often members of SGE/SDE, buying raw material in the two exchanges based in Shanghai. Then they either produce jewellery themselves or, in majority of the cases, entrust some processing enterprises to produce their chosen designs. Thereafter they utilize their own retailing networks to sell the product to ultimate consumers. Jewellery enterprises with substantial turnover volume, who are, however, not members of SGE/SDE, usually entrust member enterprises to buy raw material for them in the exchanges, and thereafter, either produce jewellery themselves or, in most cases, employ some processing firms to do so. Then they use their own retail network to sell the product to consumers. Other non-member retail enterprises can buy jewellery products through three channels:

  • Buy in bulk from member enterprises and then sell through own retail shops
  • Directly buy in bulk from the producing and processing firms and then sell through own retail shops
  • Buy in bulk from non-member enterprises and then sell through own retail shops

These enterprises are usually small retailers and their retail networks are usually found in the second-and third level cities, townships and even villages. They mainly buy from members and using the member’s brand image, make profits by selling in the small areas, where the network is not very well-established. Some of them also buy relatively cheaply in bulk from the processing firms and then reap a mark-up profit by selling in small places. While selling, they can also use their own brands. However, the third channel mentioned above is very rare.

Retail Market

Within a few years’ time, China’s jewellery market has developed to occupy 20% of the global market, with sales volume next only to the US and Japan. The following table gives an indication of the speed of development:

Sales volume: (Source: China Gemmological Association)

  • 1998 = RMB 76.2 billion
  • 1999 = RMB 80.6 billion
  • 2000 = RMB 88.0 billion
  • 2001 = RMB 96.5 billion
  • 2002 = RMB 10.53 billion

The main sales volume indicators in the year 2002 are as under:

Category 2001 2002 % Change over 2001

  • Gold jewellery (ton) 213.7 202.5 -5.24
  • Platinum jewellery (million ounce) 1.3 1.48 +13.85
  • Silver jewellery (ton) 230 250 +8.07
  • Diamond jewellery (RMB billion) 14.6 17.6 +20.55
  • Pearl jewellery (RMB billion) 5.2 6 +15.38
  • Imitation jewellery (RMB billion) 2 2.5 +25

(Source: China Gemmological Association)

In some of the major categories of jewellery products, China ranks among the top players. In terms of consumption of gold jewellery, China is the world number three, while it is number one in platinum jewellery consumption, accounting for over 50% of the world consumption of platinum used in jewellery. Diamond, red and blue gemstone consumption is also rising at the rate of 30-40% per annum. A list of top jewellery retailers in China is given at section C of Resources of this book.

Opening policy:

In 2002, in line with market access principles of China’s WTO entry, China first revoked the approval system in the retail trade of gold jewellery, changing to a system of registration, and followed it up by formal operationalization of Shanghai Gold Exchange, thereby putting an end to the long history of planned economy where gold was an item of monopoly purchase and allotment by the state.

Second, functioning of SDE in June 2002 facilitated a fall in taxes and tariffs on import of diamond, including import tariffs, VAT and consumption tax. After readjustment, tax fell from 33.9% to about 17%. This, while promoting import, discouraged smuggling and opened up possibilities for export of diamond products.

Other liberalization measures include changes in the government’s diamond classification system. The old grading system described flawed diamonds as ‘deformed’-thereby deterring many potential buyers, who could not afford the small quantity of diamonds that are perfectly flawless. Now, the less-than-perfect gems will carry a rather less loaded and more acceptable ‘P-grade’ classification. Opening-up of the gold market brought the two closed markets of gold and gold jewellery together.

Product Diversification:

After China’s reforms and opening-up, it was in 1987 that the common people first demonstrated a pent-up demand for jewellery, which, however, was only for solid metal gold jewellery. By 1993, solid gold jewellery could no longer meet the increasing demand for diversified products from the noveau rich, who turned overseas for purchasing inlaid jewellery. This laid the basis for the development of inlaid jewellery in China. From 1996 onwards, platinum and diamond-inlaid silver jewellery gradually gained currency and within a short span of time, captured the main markets in China’s top- and middle-level cities and met the requirement of different classes of consumers. In recent years, diversification of the jewellery market has progressed further, with special, new and superior products appearing every day. Pure gold jewellery, Inlaid jewellery, platinum jewellery, ruby, pearl, jade, crystal, agate etc. all have a market in China.

Articles source: Gems & Jewellery Industry in China, Embassy of India, Beijing
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Jewellery Market in China – Geographical Distribution

Jewellery Market in China – Geographical Distribution

wholesale pearlsIn the 1980s, there were only 10 designated enterprises for manufacture of gold jewellery. There were in addition 95 other producers of gemstone manufacturers, with a total industry manpower of 20000, annual value added of RMB 160.63 million, sales volume of less than RMB 200 million and foreign exchange earnings of US$ 16 million. As late as 1991, there were only about 100 registered enterprises dealing in gems and jewellery. In comparison, the number of registered producers increased to 2500 by the year 2000. Out of them, state-designated producers numbered 500, while processing enterprises of three varieties, namely, wholly owned foreign enterprises, cooperative joint-venture enterprises and wholly domestic, were over one thousand.

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Before the 1990s, except for a small amount of processed diamond which were exported, demand in the domestic market was absent. Starting 1993, diamond processing enterprises increased in number to over 70 by the end of 2002, with a total employment of 16000, thereby accounting for one-fifth of the global diamond processing industry. With a value added of US$ 0.8 billion, China is the world’s second largest diamond processing nation, after India. There are 500 designated enterprises in gold and platinum jewellery, and 4000 gems and jadestone producers. Production enterprises under individual management exceed 20000. Manpower employed in the gold, silver, gemstone and jade production industries are in excess of 800000. If we include those engaged in individual production, this number can be as high as three million.

Processing as well as sale of jewellery in China is mainly concentrated in the three major centres of Guangdong, Shanghai and Beijing. They are three centres of China’s economic development, with maximum concentration of consumption. They also have their individual and unique background for development of gems and jewellery industry in China.

  • Guangdong: Guangdong boasts of two major coastal open cities of Guangzhou and Shenzhen. Guangzhou is the jewellery production and sales base area of the Pearl River delta. The biggest jadeite market and the famous Huahan antique jadeware market are located in Guangzhou. Panyu district of Guangzhou is the most important gems and jewellery processing centre in the country, accounting for a fifth of the production, processing and export volume of China’s gold and mounted jewellery.
  • Shenzhen: Shenzen enjoys absolute advantage in China’s gems and jewellery market. Shenzhen is an important centre for manufacture and processing of gold jewellery. It is a centre for wholesale trade, information, materials trade as well as export. After the establishment of Gold Jewellery Mansion in Shenzhen, the city is emerging as the logistics centre for gold artefacts trade in China. Shenzhen is also the first Chinese pilot city for reform of administrative mechanism in gold and silver. It enjoys locational advantages of proximity to Hong Kong, one of the world’s three largest trading centres in the jewellery industry.
  • Shanghai: Shanghai is the biggest city in China, with the largest volume of consumption. It is the biggest jewellery handicrafts manufacturing centre, with annual trade volume of over several billion US dollars. It is China’s biggest gold and gold jewellery consumer. Over 200 enterprises in Shanghai engaged in jewellery and diamond all occupy frontier places in China. Shanghai’s gold consumption is one-eighteenth of the entire nation, while shares of sales volume of diamond jewellery and platinum stand at 10% and 35% respectively. With the establishment of Huatong Silver Exchange Market, SDE and SGE, Shanghai has emerged as the major centre for trade in raw materials for jewellery industry.
  • Beijing: Beijing is the centre of China’s politics, economy and culture. It is also an important domestic market for jewellery. There are more than 100 enterprises engaged in platinum and platinum inlaid jewellery. Consumption of diamond wedding rings in Beijing is next only to Shanghai. Retail markets abound in Beijing, though they are somewhat dispersed.

Articles source: Gems & Jewellery Industry in China, Embassy of India, Beijing
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Freshwater Pearls Wholesale – Pearls Jewellery Market in China

Freshwater Pearls Wholesale – Pearls Jewellery Market in China

wholesale pearlsPearl culture has registered fast and comprehensive growth in both the seawater and the freshwater variety, establishing a requisite scale and producing high grade, high technology products. China’s production of freshwater pearl of over 800 tons accounts for around 95% of the global total. Seawater (Akoya) pearl production at 18 tons also places China at the forefront of the world producers. (details info: freshwater pearls wholesale)

China is abundant in natural pearls. China’s seawater pearl industry, second only to Japan, with an annual production volume of about 20 tons, is composed of three main culture bases located in the south, namely, Liusha in Guangdong province, Hainan province and Beihai in Guangxi autonomous region. About 90% of all households in Liusha are engaged in marine pearl culture. (Reference: Freshwater Pearls Wholesale)

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Annual production of seawater pearl is about 12-13 tons, with processed pearls of about 5-6 tons. 90% of the production is exported abroad. Production volume is a mere one ton or so in Hainan, but the pearls are quite expensive due to their large size and better quality. Yingpan in Beihai is a major marine culture farm base with a production volume of 8-10 tons every year. Freshwater pearl industry in China experienced fast growth since the 1980s. In the past, the government controlled export, both in volume and prices. A part of the domestic wholesale trade used to be exported to Hong Kong through grey channels. In the mid-1980s, major breakthroughs were achieved in freshwater pearl cultivation, and better quality, bigger pearls of 6 millimetres could be produced. Apart from Hong Kong, Suzhou in Jiangsu province and Zhuji in Zhejiang province emerged as major trading centre for freshwater pearl. In 1992, government control on exports was lifted. In 1998, large sized pearls of 1 centimetre were cultured. At present, China produces about 800-1000 tons of freshwater pearl, accounting for about 95% of the world total. (details info: freshwater pearls wholesale)

China’s freshwater pearl farms are located in the provinces along the middle and lower streams of the Yangtze River; of which Zhejiang province produces about 90% of the national total. While China’s production volume is high in both marine and freshwater pearls, it has a relatively low share (10-20%) of the global trade. This is because China’s pearl processing abilities are low. Trade is transacted in kilograms like grain and agricultural produce. Most of the sold products could only serve as handicrafts item and not really as jewellery products. Thus the value of the product is low. (details info: freshwater pearls wholesale)

Freshwater Pearls Wholesale & Others Jewellery Market in China

China’s jadeite, jade carving and sculpture are known throughout the world. China is the world’s largest processing centre for jade carving and jadeite. The industry is concentrated in Jieyang in Guangdong, Xiuyan in Liaoning, Hotian in Xinjiang, Nanyang in Henan and a few places in Yuannan province and Guangxi Autonomous Region. Processing industries can be found in almost all parts of China, and they together produce annual value added of over 10 billion RMB, of which the best quality is exported. (details info: freshwater pearls wholesale)

China’s gems and jewellery industry mainly lacks in high-value material resources like diamond, red and blue gemstone and emerald etc., but the country is abundant in other semi-precious stones like agate, amber, crystal, jade etc., which are found in several parts of China. Recently, under private initiatives, many businesses have started dealing in these products. According to incomplete statistics quoted by China Gemmological Association, the annual production value of these industries together stands at over 8 billion RMB, and they employ total manpower of about 1 million. (Reference: Freshwater Pearls Wholesale)

Articles source: Gems & Jewellery Industry in China, Embassy of India, Beijing – (details info: freshwater pearls wholesale)
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We send your purchasing parcel via FedEx, we inform you the tracking number as soon as possible
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