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CAUSE OF COLOR ON POLYNESIAN BLACK PEARLS

CAUSE OF COLOR ON POLYNESIAN BLACK PEARLS

wa mj ar pearls wholesaleAs discussed above, color in pearls is a mixture of body color and overtones. The body color is determined by a combination of factors, including the biology of the molluslz (specifically the mantle tissue), the composition of the mother-of-pearl shell, and trace elements present in the water environment. Japanese researchers have investigated the body color in pearls extensively for over 50 years (Fox, 1979). They cite the presence of porphyrins (a group of water-soluble, nitrogenous 16-member ring organic compounds) in the shell of the molluslz as a primary cause of color in colored oyster pearls.

In inolluslzs, the porphyrins combine with metals such as lead and zinc to form metalloporphyrins. These same porphyrins produce a red fluorescence that is useful in identifying natural color in blaclz cultured pearls. Miyoshi et al. (1987) illustrate the diagnostic spectra produced by porphyrins present in the nacre. Also contributing to the color of most blaclz pearls is the presence of brownish organic substances that exist between the translucent porphyrin- containing nacre and the bead nucleus (Miyoshi et al., 1987; l? Galenon, pers. comm., 1989). This substance is thought to be conchiolin, but research to date has not been conclusive. Fritsch and Rossman (1988) describe the cause of the “high order” interference colors -overtone and orient -seen in black pearls as “light passing through and reflected back by alternating layers of aragonite [in the nacre] and conchiolin.” The finer the layers of nacre are, the more orient a pearl has (R. Wan, pers. comm., 1989).

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COLOR TREATMENTS

In a 1971 article, C. Denis George lamented his unsuccessful search for even one natural-color black pearl in visits to Mexico City, New York, and Paris. He was routinely offered treated blaclz pearls that were represented to be natural color, and he railed against the “unscrupulous suppliers” who were perpetrating this “miserable and fraudulent” situation. In fact, from 1900 to 1978 (when cultured black pearls first began to appear in quantity), there were far more treated than natural-color black pearls on the market. One result of the overharvesting of I? margaritifera in the 19th century was that by 1900 there was a shortage of natural-color blaclz pearls. To fill this void, people began to use silver nitrate solutions to dye the smaller Alzoya pearls common to Japan (figure 19).

Even today, silver nitrate and other silver salts are probably the most common form of treatment to turn white and off-color Akoya pearls black (Komatsu and Alzamatsu, 1978; Taburiaux, 1985). Although pearl treaters are among the most secretive in the gem industry, we do know that the basic procedure involves soaking the pearls in a weak solution of silver nitrate and dilute ammonia and then exposing them to light or hydrogen sulfide gas. This produces a change of color in the conchioliii that makes the pearl appear black in reflected light. The resulting color is stable to light and heat (Nassau, 1984). Because the hues of brown-black, green-black, and blaclz are similar to natural colors, it is virtually impossible to distinguish them by visual observation alone (Taburiaux, 1985).

Another, reportedly organic, dyeing technique was commonly practiced from approximately 1915 through the 1920s. Called the French Method, it was used by a few treaters in Paris on off-color natural pearls. Although little is recorded about the actual procedure, we do know that it can be detected with a microscope when dye concentrations are present. Pearls were shipped from Japan to Paris for treatment and then back to Japan for sale (R. Crowningshield, pers. comm., 1989). In 1920, Rosenthal cautioned jewelers to be aware of pearls treated by this process. Although historically treatment has involved Akoya cultured pearls, it was inevitable that attempts would be made to enhance light-color P. maxima and P. margaritifera cultured pearls as well. In 1987, Fryer et al. reported seeing a strand of 11- to 14-mm blaclz cultured pearls that showed evidence of silver nitrate dye. More recently, in September 1989, the GIA Gem Trade Laboratory in New York examined two 12-mm blaclz cultured pearls that showed evidence that they might have been dyed.

The laboratory staff subsequently received confirmation from the trade that some South Sea pearls were being treated to darken the color (D. Hargett, pers. comm., 1989). One of the more recent treatments used on P, fucata martensii (Alzoyas) in an effort to darken mediocre-color cultured pearls is irradiation, specifically with a cobalt gamma source. According to Matsuda and Miyoshi (1988), gamma-ray irradiation can change off-color cultured Alzoya pearls to an attractive bluish gray. These authors report that irradiation of Alzoya pearls began in the 1950s with the ‘Atoms-for-Peace Program” and resulted in irradiated cultured pearls first appearing on the market in the 1960s. Ken Tang Chow’s patent on irradiating pearls, filed in 1960 and granted in 1963, sheds some light on the procedure used. The technique he patented involves exposure of the pearl to cobalt-60 with an intensity of 1,000 curies of gamma rays at a distance of 1 cm from the source for about 20 minutes at room temperature. Chow found that longer periods of irradiation did not produce any appreciable change in color. He also reported that the irradiated pearls were stable to light and heat.

Scientists have often noted that the color of freshwater shells and pearls can be changed by irradiation more easily than that of saltwater oysters. They attribute this to a change of manganese compounds (MnC03+MnO) which are more abundant in freshwater mollusks (Wada, 1981). Irradiating Alzoyas produces a darkening of color because the freshwater bead nucleus darkens and influences the body color. In P. margaritifera, the much thicker nacre would not allow the color shift of the nucleus to be visible (R. Crowningshield and D. Hargett, pers. comm., 1989).

Dr. George Rossman, of the California Institute of Technology, recently experimented with the irradiation of three Polynesian blaclz pearls following the procedure outlined in Chow’s patent, but left them in the reactor for slightly longer than 24 hours. No appreciable change was observed in these pearls compared to their control samples, although a color shift was observed in the freshwater pearls irradiated at the same time (pers. comm., 1989).

Articles source: POLYNESIAN BLACK PEARLS, By Marisa Goebel and Dona Mary Dirlam south sea pearls wholesaleFor Questions and answer you can contact & chat with us on:

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HARVESTING OF POLYNESIAN BLACK PEARLS

HARVESTING OF POLYNESIAN BLACK PEARLS

wa mj ar pearls wholesaleIf, at two years, all of the indications are good, the oysters are harvested. A number of farms now have two or more harvests a year. At this time, the oysters are brought to the installation or laboratory Where the initial insertion took place and are opened by a technician who then examines the
interior.

If the operation is successful and a pearl is found, it is removed carefully. The harvested pearls are washed, dried, and lightly polished by rubbing in salt in preparation for sorting and grading. On a few of the farms, the oyster may be reoperated on after a period of rest (V Dockendorf, pers. comm., 1989). On average, 55% of the oysters will accept the operation the first time. A return of 30% commercially acceptable pearls is considered a very good harvest (C. Rosenthal, pers. comm., 1989).

If the oyster has rejected the bead nucleus, the technician will check to see if a “keshi” (mantle tissue-nucleated pearl) has been created from the piece of mantle tissue that was inserted. In any case, if the mollusk that rejected the bead is deemed healthy, another implant may be attempted.

Again, some farms will elect to make mabes at this stage rather than risk a second implant because of the high mortality rate for mollusks after the second insertion.

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GRADING

Five factors are commonly used by the trade to grade Polynesian black pearls: color, luster, shape, size, and surface features. Color and Orient. In the context of black pearls, one of the most important factors, “color,” consists of two components: body color (the basic color presented by the pearl) and overtone (the hues seen superimposed on top of the body color). Body color can be subdivided into six groups: silver, silver blue, gold, brown-black, green-black, and black (figure 13).

Overtone is typically a mixture of colors that is best observed as the pearl is rotated. Created by light passing through the layers of pink, lavender, blue, “peacoclz” blue, gold, green, or a reddish purple called aubergine (after the French word for eggplant). The color most characteristic of fine Polynesian black pearls is a greenish blaclz (also referred to as “peacoclz”) that sometimes has an aubergine overtone. Because other South Sea pearl-bearing oysters may also produce silver, silver-blue, and golden pearls, these latter colors are more plentiful in the market and therefore may command a lower price than the various combinations of black-colored pearls.

Also caused by the passage of white light through the many layers of nacre is the rainbow like play of color that seems to hover about the surface of some pearls. Called orient, it is not always prominent in blaclz pearls, although it is readily visible in the finer grades. Luster. Luster is the quality of light reflections from the surface of the pearl. As taught in the current CIA pearl course, luster is considered high when reflections are bright and sharp, and low when tKe9 are weak and fuzzy. In blaclz pearls, much of the light is reflected from the surface, thus producing excellent luster in most. In the trade, this brilliance is called eclat, from the French word for shiny.

Shape. Shape can be divided into three main categories: round or spherical, symmetrical, and baroque. The most highly prized is the perfectly round pearl that will roll in every direction when placed on a flat surface (Lintilhac, p. 70). Symmetrical pearls are pear-, egg-, or button-shaped; some are evenly elongated. The baroque-pearl category
contains all the irregular shapes and is the most interesting to many pearl enthusiasts.

Currently, there is an abundance of baroque pearls from the South Seas (see figure 14). American pearl grower John Latendresse feels that the disproportionate number of baroques is due to the poor quality of bead that has been supplied to the Polynesian pearl farmers. His examination of black-pearl nuclei reveals that many are infested with parasites whose presence alters to bits of organic material on the surface of the beads (figure 15), referred to in the trade as wax. “Nacre won’t adhere to the nucleus in places where there is wax,” Latendresse explains. ‘As a result, you get baroque pearls” (Federman, 1985). The desire for improved quality and a steady supply has led black-pearl producers to find beads outside the traditional sources of supply in Japan (C. Rosenthal, pers. comm., 1989).

Size. Size is the most readily determined feature of a pearl. Pearl sieves, much like diamond sieves, with holes ranging from 9 mm to 13 mm, are used initially to separate pearls into batches. Polynesian black cultured pearls generally average between 9 mm and 12 mm. Since the diameter of the typical Surface. As is the case with all pearls, surface imperfections such as pits, bumps, ridges, cracks, and spots lower the grade on a Polynesian blaclz pearl. Rings, actually parallel furrows that encircle the pearl, represent an unusual though often attractive surface feature (figure 17). Most rings, according to Latendresse (pers. comm., 1989), result from the pearl being nucleated near the hinge of the two shells. In a cultured blaclz pearl, a line on the surface of the nucleus bead may produce rings (again, see figure 15).

Pearl Grading System. Systems used in the trade to grade blaclz pearls typically consist of a series of letters that indicate shape and surface features. Lintilhac (1987) describes one such system:

  • S = Shape
  • R = Round
  • D = Drop or pear
  • Brq = Baroque
  • But = Button
  • Circ = Circled (Ringed)
  • Surface and Luster (figure 18)
  • A = Pearls with a flawless skin and high brilliance with one pit or pinprick
  • B = Pearls that are less brilliant and have two or three surface blemishes
  • C = Pearls that are somewhat dull or have four or more surface blemishes
  • D = Pearls that are definitely dull or marred by deeper flaws A similar system used by Assael International is outlined by Federman (1987).

Articles source: POLYNESIAN BLACK PEARLS, By Marisa Goebel and Dona Mary Dirlam
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Wholesale tahitian pearls : ANATOMY OF THE OYSTER AND COMPOSITION OF THE POLYNESIAN BLACK PEARLS

Wholesale tahitian pearls : ANATOMY OF THE OYSTER AND COMPOSITION OF THE POLYNESIAN BLACK PEARLS

Wholesale tahitian pearlsOf the more than 70 species of mollusks (from the phyllum Molluscs) that can produce pearls, the majority belong to the Pinctada family. Pinctada maxima, the white-lipped or gold-lipped oyster, is prized for both its shell and the large gold-colored and white pearls it produces. It lives in the South Seas, Burma, New Guinea, the Philippines, Australia, and Indonesia Pearls or Lombok Pearls. ( source: Wholesale tahitian pearls )

Pinctada fucata martensii, commonly called Alzoya, has a thin shell of no commercial importance but is valued for its small (usually less than 9 mm] white pearls, which are abundant on the world market today. These mollusks are found in China and Japan. Pinctada margaritifera, the blaclz-lipped oyster, is prized for both its mother-of-pearl shell and its large gray to black pearls. Pearl-bearing inargaritifera are found in Peru, Baja California, Panama, Indonesia, Micronesia, the Red Sea, the Philippines, and Olzinawa, as well as French Polynesia. ( source: Wholesale tahitian pearls )

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(Photo & source: Wholesale tahitian pearls)

Oysters, bivalve mollusks like the Pinctada, have two symmetrical shells hinged together by a ligament. The life span of l? inargaritifera ranges up to 30 years; a single oyster can weigh up to 11 lbs. (about 5 kg) and reach a diameter of 12 in. (about 30 cm). A powerful adductor muscle holds the two shells together, leaving an indentation on the inner surface. One of the most distinctive characteristics of the black-lipped shell is the greenish black color on its inside edges, which is duplicated in many of the fine pearls from this molluslz. The two most important organs in producing
pearls are the mantle and the gonad (figure 8). Not only does the mantle form the shell, but each part of the mantle also secretes different layers of nacre. The gonad is the reproductive gland, a large whitish sack that holds the eggs or
sperm. In the culturing process, the bead nucleus and a piece of mantle tissue are inserted into the gonad to produce a cultured pearl. ( source: Wholesale tahitian pearls )

Nacre, the essential ingredient of all pearls, is composed of approximately 90% aragonite (orthorhombic calcium carbonate crystals) and 5% conchiolin (an organic protein that binds the aragonite crystals together), together with other organic material; the most abundant trace elements in I? margaritifera are magnesium, strontium, and sodium (Wada, 198 1, p. 154). The nacre is secreted in concentric layers about a micron thick. Cultured pearls have a refractive index of 1.53-1.69 and a specific gravity range of 2.72-2.78. The average hardness is 3.5. ( source: Wholesale tahitian pearls )

CULTURING POLYNESIAN BLACK PEARLS

While natural black pearls are still found occasionally, nearly all the black pearls on the market today are cultured. Most natural black pearls have slightly less luster and tend to be larger than their cultured equivalents. Culturing is essentially a two-part process: first, the cultivation of the oyster, P. margaritifera, and second, the growth of the pearl in this oyster. The technique is essentially the same one Mikimoto used to develop the Japanese pearl-culturing industry (Shirai, 1970). Mikimoto even did some culturing experiments with l? margaritifera in 1920, when he established an experimental station at Palau (Cahn, 1949; George, 1979). ( source: Wholesale tahitian pearls )

The oysters used in the culturing process are still drawn from the limited resources in the water around the islands. Although some are retrieved by independent divers (who continue to be restricted by the Tahiti government to certain zones of the atolls), most are produced by spat cultivation. In a contemporary adaptation of Bouchon  Brandely’s original program, young oysters are placed in nurseries, suspended from metal nets by stainless steel or nylon wires, until they are old enough-at least two to three years old-to be used for pearl culturing (figure 9). Some farms are also experimenting with growing mollusks in tanks; positive results are anticipated. ( source: Wholesale tahitian pearls )

Pearl culturing consists of inserting into the gonad of the oyster a bead made of freshwater mussel shell along with a graft of mantle tissue from another live black-lipped oyster. The nucleus is typically made from the mother-of-pearl of a Mississippi River (U.S.) molluslz. Once, only the pigtoe mussel was used; today, three species found in central and southern tributaries of the Mississippi River also provide good nuclei. The mantletissue graft is an essential component of the culturing process, both in terms of stimulating the secretion of nacre and in determining the color and other features of the finished pearl. ( source: Wholesale tahitian pearls )

The entire operation of inserting the bead and tissue takes one to two minutes and is usually done by Japanese, Australian, or Polynesian technicians. The technician chooses the appropriate nucleus size for the oyster being used, typically a bead 5-9 mm in diameter, and then makes a small incision in the gonad, into which the nucleus and mantle-tissue graft are placed (figure 10). The experience of the technician is invaluable in ensuring that the oyster
used is healthy, that the largest bead possible is selected, and that the various components are not damaged in the course of the operation. ( source: Wholesale tahitian pearls )

Once the procedure is completed, the oysters are attached to a nylon rope through holes drilled in the shells. In some farms, the oysters are placed individually in net bags, which catch any beads that are rejected. A diver then attaches the chain of oysters to an underwater platform (figure 11). The operation takes place typically between June and
September, the winter months for this region, when the water is cooler and there is less risk of violent storms. ( source: Wholesale tahitian pearls )

If an oyster rejects the bead, it will generally do so in the first two months following the surgery. Some well-equipped farms have been lznown to X-ray the oysters to see if the nucleus has been rejected or if it is in place properly, but this technique is used much less frequently today than it was in the past (R. Wan, pers. comm., 1989). Oysters that reject their beads can be re-operated on after a couple of months of rest. On some farms, these oysters are instead used to create mabes or assembled cultured blister pearls. ( source: Wholesale tahitian pearls )

Approximately two years must pass before the success of this operation is lznown. At that time, a few mollusks are brought to the surface and checked to see if a pearl has formed and, if so, how thick the nacre is. With three or four layers of nacre deposited a day, a pearl cultured in P. margaritifera will develop a nacre thickness of 2 to 2.5 inm in
two yea&, compared to 1 mm developed by an Akoya pearl over the same time span. ( source: Wholesale tahitian pearls )

During the growth period, the oysters must be watched constantly. They are brought to the surface and the barnacles cleaned off several times a year. Predators, parasites, hurricanes, pollution, and piracy are a constant threat. In both 1983 and 1985, hurricanes did profound damage to oysters, equipment, and buildings in French Polynesia on farms in the Tuamotu Archipelago (Cohen, 1983; C. Rosenthal, pers. comm., 1989). ( source: Wholesale tahitian pearls )

Currently the lagoons of two archipelagos – the Tuamotu Archipelago and the Gambler Islands – are used primarily for cultivating pearls and the mother-of-pearl shells that are now the byproduct of this important industry in French
Polynesia. Efforts are being made to find other suitable lagoons. ( source: Wholesale tahitian pearls )

Articles source: POLYNESIAN BLACK PEARLS, By Marisa Goebel and Dona Mary Dirlam. ( source: Wholesale tahitian pearls )
south sea pearls wholesaleFor Questions and answer you can contact & chat with us on:

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Tahitian pearls wholesale : POLYNESIAN BLACK PEARLS

Tahitian pearls wholesale: POLYNESIAN BLACK PEARLS

wa mj ar pearls wholesaleHistorically, natural black pearls have been one of the rarest and most exotic of gem materials. In the 1960s, however, a black-pearl culturing industry was initiated. Today, cultured black pearls play a prominent role throughout the international jewelry community. This article reviews the history of Polynesian black pearls, the development of culturing and the techniques involved, grading, treatments and identification, and the factors responsible for their growing popularity in the 1980s. (Detail info: tahitian pearls wholesale)

The 1980s have seen an explosion of interest in the cultured blaclz pearls of French Polynesia, five groups of island archipelagos in the South Pacific. Twenty years ago, blaclz pearls were a mere curiosity appreciated by a handful of people. Today, cultured black pearls, often called Tahitian pearls or Tahitian cultured pearls, can be found in fine jewelry stores throughout the world. (Detail info: tahitian pearls wholesale)

The large black-lipped oyster that produces black pearls, Pinctada marguritifera, is found in the coastal waters of Peru, Baja California, Panama, Indonesia Lombok Pearls, Micronesia, the Red Sea, the Philippines, and Olzinawa (a prefecture of Japan), as well as French Polynesia. Yet natural blaclz pearls are extremely rare compared to their white counterparts. In the 1960s, however, with the aid of Japanese technicians, pearl farmers in French Polynesia mastered the culturing of blaclz pearls. Like the natural black pearls, the Polynesian cultured pearls are large and often noted for their superb luster and orient, as well as for the unusual gray-to-black range of color (figure 1). To this day, the vast majority of black-pearl culturing is in Polynesia. (Detail info: tahitian pearls wholesale)

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Photo & data source: Tahitian pearls wholesale

With the greater availability of black pearls has emerged a broader market in the jewelry industry, as is evidenced by their regular presence both in retail stores and at auction. Problems have also arisen, such as concern that the pearls might have been dyed or irradiated (Maitlins and Bonanno, 1987). To provide a better understanding of this exotic material, this article will review the history, biology, and culturing of blaclz pearls. It will also describe grading parameters and how to detect treatments used on pearls from other mollusl~sto mimic the Polynesian blacks and, more recently, on some Polynesian cultured pearls as well. (Detail info: tahitian pearls wholesale)

THE SOURCE: FRENCH POLYNESIA – Tahitian pearls wholesale

Midway between Australia and North America-at approximately 17 south latitude and 151′ west longitude-is a group of 130 islands known as French Polynesia (see figure 2). This land mass of 1,550 square miles (9,600 lzm2) is divided into five archipelagos: the Society Islands, the Leeward Islands, the Tuamotu Archipelago, the Gambier Islands, and the Australes. The blaclz pearls are cultivated primarily in the lagoons of the Tuamotu Archipelago (figure 3) and the Gambier Islands, the waters of which have been found to provide a perfect environment for P. margaritifera (Salomon and Roudnitslza, 1986). (Detail info: tahitian pearls wholesale)

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

The shell of P. margaritifera was treasured by native Polynesians long before the European explorers arrived. According to Tahitian legends, blaclz pearls were considered to be emanations from the gods. One important god, Oro, traveled to earth by means of his rainbow, which was believed to be the source of the iridescence in the pearl and its shell (Salomon and Roudnitslza, 1986). In September 1513, Spanish explorer Vasco Nufiez de Balboa (1475-1519) first arrived in what is now French Polynesia and claimed the group of islands for Spain. Later, European sailors recounted in their logs and diaries the abundance of giant mollusks in the warm, shallow waters of the South Sea islands, and the ease with which they could be retrieved (Lintilhac, 1987). Unfortunately, little is known about how the pearls were used by native Polynesians or the early European visitors. (Detail info: tahitian pearls wholesale)

The earliest record of shell jewelry dat(Detail info: tahitian pearls wholesale)es from 1722, when Roggeveen, a Dutch navigator, noted that the people wore silver disks in their ears and pendants of mother-of-pearl (see figure 4). Some of the ceremonial uses included decorating robes with shells and filling eyes in sculpture with mother-of-pearl. Kunz and Stevenson (1908) describe how Tahiti’s monarch Queen Pomare played marbles with blaclz pearls in the early 1800s. In 1842, Polynesia became a protectorate of France, ending over 300 years of conflict with other European countries. During the 19th century, navigators from France, England, the Netherlands, and elsewhere traded flour, cloth, nails, and alcohol to the divers for mother-of-pearl shells that they used in jewelry, as inlay in furniture, and as buttons. They also brought back pearls, some of which were undoubtedly incorporated into fine jewelry. A few historically important natural black-pearl pieces are lznown today, although the source of the pearls cannot always be established. (Detail info: tahitian pearls wholesale)

In May 1989, for example, Christie’s Geneva auction sold (for $104,310) a stunning fringe necklace of 35 graduated natural blaclz, silver, and gray pearls that had belonged to the Spanish ambassador to Russia, the Duke of Osuna, in the 1850s. Twining (1960) describes “The Azra” black pearl, part of a famous necklace in the Russian crown jewels that eventually came into the possession of the Youssoupoff family. Another black pearl on a diamond necklace that had once been owned by the Youssoupoff family was auctioned for $130,000 by Christie’s in 1980. The April 1984 Christie’s auction of jewels from the estate of Florence J. GoulcI featured a period piece with natural gray pearls set in a dramatic diamond, platinum, and white gold brooch [figure 5). (Detail info: tahitian pearls wholesale)

The 1840s were marked by heavy harvesting of the black- lipped oyster. By 1850, reports indicated concern that the oysters were becoming scarce and had to be recovered from greater depths of water (Lintilhac, 1987). As the overharvesting progressed, the French government intervened by establishing seasonal diving periods. By 1885, the French government realized that the pearling industry would not survive in the South Sea islands unless more dramatic steps were taken. The government then hired biologists to determine ways to replenish l? margaritifera, One of these biologists, Bouchon Brandely, suggested a strict prohibition on fishing in certain oysterbearing lagoons. More importantly, he recommended collecting spats, or young oysters, and placing them in a protected area. The resulting concentration of oysters created an ideal environment for reproduction, so much so that even today, spat cultivating is the primary way of guaranteeing the oyster population. (data source: Tahitian pearls wholesale)

At the time Bouchon Brandely suggested cultivating spats, the economic impetus was the demand for mother-of-pearl; any pearls found were simply by-products. Black pearls did not become more than an attractive oddity until culturing in P. inargaritifera was achieved in the 1960s. Early in that decade, French veterinarian Jean Marie Domard
began to study culturing; in 1962, he brought Figure 6. These baroque cultured blaclz pearls (the largest is 16 x 8 mm) came from the first harvest of the Rosenthal farm on Manihi Atoll. Courtesy of John Latendresse; photo by Robert Weldon. a Japanese specialist to Polynesia, who implanted 5,000 oysters. By 1965, they had obtained 1,000
gem-quality cultured blaclz pearls (Lintilhac, 1987). (data source: Tahitian pearls wholesale)

The first pearl farm in French Polynesia was started in 1966 on the Manihi Atoll in the lkamotu Archipelago by Hubert and Jacques Rosenthal, grandsons of “pearl king” Leonard Rosenthal, author (1920) and scion of a French jewelry family known for their fabulous pearl jewels. The Tahitian government encouraged the Rosenthals to help develop the culturing industry in Polynesia. Through the efforts of Japanese specialist Renji Wada and site manager Kolzo Chaze, the farm was in full operation by 1968 (figure 6). It continues today, managed by Leonard’s great grandson, Cyril Rosenthal. Over the course of the next 20 years, culturing developed into a viable export industry as the technical expertise evolved to produce large, fine-quality blaclz pearls for the jewelry community. (data source: Tahitian pearls wholesale)

Articles source: POLYNESIAN BLACK PEARLS, By Marisa Goebel and Dona Mary Dirlam. (data source: Tahitian pearls wholesale)
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Wholesale pearl earrings : Pearl auctions

Wholesale pearl earrings : Pearl auctions

Source: Poe Vira Vira, April 2008 (courtesy of Jewellery News Asia, April 2008, reference: Wholesale pearl earrings )

wa mj ar pearls wholesaleThe international pearl auctions held in February and March 2008 in Hong Kong concluded with good results, although buyers generally adopted a more cautious attitude amid worries over the slow moving US economy. (reference: wholesale pearl earrings )

PASPALEY: Commenting on prices, chairman of Kobe–based Hosei Co Ltd, Yoshihiro Shimuzi, noted that prices were stable for cleaner better quality merchandise that were in demand, but were softer for spotted or lower quality items. (reference: wholesale pearl earrings )

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Leung Sik Wah, director of Hong Kong-based Cogent Trading Co Ltd, and co-organizer at the Paspaley auction commented that buyers adopted a “wait and see” attitude in the face of economic uncertainties. “Nobody knows what will happen in three to six months’ time. Given the sub-prime issue and falling stock markets, buyers have become more cautious — buying just what they need and being less willing to stock up”. The 38th Paspaley Pearl Auction, a three-day event, sold 148,769 pieces (420 kg) of white and golden South Sea pearls or 64% of the total on offer. Average price per pearl was USD 88.23. Buyers attendance was high (105) and Europeans topped the buyers list, thanks to the strong Euro. Large sizes and baroques captured the attention of buyers at the Paspaley Hong Kong auction. Several lots consisted of only one pearl, mostly 16 mm, and fetched high prices. The one with the highest per-gram price was a 16 mm (6.18 g) white pearl with pinkish overtones which sold for USD 4,137. Over 20 lots of baroques on offer were bid for strongly. Lot #552 containing nine baroques of 20 mm and above fetched USD 35,284. (reference: wholesale pearl earrings )

ROBERT WAN: Marked price increases were reported at the 39th Robert Wan Tahiti Perles Auction, which fetched 3.89 million Euros, or USD 5.94 million for the 124,633 pearls (283.3 kg) sold at an average price per pearl of 31.04 Euros/USD 47.67. Robert Wan was very happy with the auction because not only was the price maintained, more pearls of better luster and better colours and more larger pearls were available. A larger quantity of 12–14 mm pearls were on offer. Prices were considerably higher overall due to higher overall pearl quality, more bigger sizes and better sorting said Mr Shimuzu of Hosei. President of Wong’s Diamond and Pearls Co Ltd in Hong Kong, Wong Yik Nin, estimated an average price increase of 10%. Buyer attendance was high with Japan remaining the top buying market followed by United States and Great Britain (reference: wholesale pearl earrings )

POE RAVA NUI: The 8th Poe Rava Nui Tahiti Pearl Auction sold 77% of pearls on offer, with a total sale value of around 3 million Euros, or USD 4.6 million. The average size of the pearls on offer was about 1.4 g. Larger pearls of the 13 mm to 18 mm sizes received strong bids especially from buyers in Europe and the US. (reference: wholesale pearl earrings )
wholesale pearl earringsFor Questions and answer you can contact & chat with us on:

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We send your purchasing parcel via FedEx, we inform you the tracking number as soon as possible

This is my name, my phone number and my address, as a sender (written by FedEx)
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We send your purchasing parcel via FedEx, we inform you the tracking number as soon as possible
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